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What is the brachiocephalic syndrome

Changes in the anatomy of the skulls of some animals of brachiocephalic breeds, such as bulldog, boxer, Pekingese or shih tzu, distort the nasopharynx, generating a pathology known as brachiocephalic syndrome, which obstructs the respiratory tract and requires treatment special since it can generate serious complications. Let’s see, next, what brachiocephalic syndrome is about and how we can identify it in our pet.
The brachiocephalic syndrome, also known as upper respiratory tract syndrome, generates multiple consequences in the animals that suffer from it, since it causes an obstruction of the respiratory tract, making it difficult to breathe. In general, this pathology affects dogs of flat breeds or brachiocephalic, although not necessarily all dogs of these breeds will develop.
This brachycephalic respiratory syndrome produces a considerable increase in the resistance of the airways, basically, by a soft palate extended or lengthened more than normal and that manages to block the airways. Also, it is possible that it is generated by an anomaly in the pharynx that prevents the passage of air to the trachea, or by narrow nostrils that hinder breathing through the nose.
In addition to the need to oxygenate the body, breathing in dogs has a very special additional function: it manages to regulate its body temperature. Hence the seriousness of this pathology, since the animal not only will have difficulty breathing regularly but may also be the victim of a heat stroke, being able to suffer convulsions and irreversible damages in the digestive system and in some vital organs.

Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of brachiocephalic syndrome

Some of the most representative symptoms are intolerance to exercise, persistent cough, snoring, agitated breathing, sneezing and dyspnea, among others, being the difficulty to breathe and snoring after physical exertion, the first signs to manifest. As time goes by, the pet develops pharyngitis, laryngitis, or associated pathologies.
If these symptoms occur in the animal, it is necessary to go immediately to the veterinary clinic so that the specialist can perform the rigor tests.
For an adequate diagnosis, the veterinarian will perform an endoscopy of the respiratory tract. In addition, the specialist may require a chest x-ray, electrocardiogram and complementary urine and blood tests. The objective will be to rule out the presence of laryngeal collapse, tracheal hypoplasia or secondary pathologies.
The usual treatment of the brachiocephalic syndrome consists of a veterinary surgical procedure in order to enlarge the animal’s nostrils and remove excess tissues. The operation may also be aimed at shortening the palate.
Depending on the state of the pet, it is likely that the veterinarian will determine the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and antitussives.
Symptoms of brachiocephalic syndrome usually appear in the adulthood of the dog so it is convenient to pay attention to the breathing of the dog and any manifestation of agitation or snoring. Humid or very hot climates often aggravate the situation, in which case a visit to the veterinarian is necessary to assess their situation.

How is the breeding of Australian parakeets

Thanks to their intelligence, the Australian parakeets are one of the birds preferred by people to have as pets, not only because of their great color but also because of their bright and cheerful nature, which manages to fill any home with energy. Today we dedicate a few lines to these birds, in order to learn a little more about their breeding and care.

General characteristics of Australian parakeets

Hailing from the varied fauna of Australia, the Australian parakeets, also known as common parakeets, are a type of endemic bird that belongs to the family of parrots and that have adapted perfectly to other areas of the world, such as Europe and America. In these places, they are very much required as pets because of their small size and peculiar singing.
The Australian parakeets measure just between 18cm and 20cm from head to tail and their weight is only 30-35gr. In general, they are light green and have a yellow head, although it is possible to find them in multiple color combinations such as brown, light blue, white and gray.
They have a very particular type of character that is characterized by its joy and vivacity. These birds, moreover, are very intelligent and are capable of recognizing their owner and of manifesting their desire to play. That is why Australian parakeets are so required as pets, especially by the little ones.
It is precisely because of their nature that these birds must be in the company of other similar specimens, so it is essential to raise them in a habitat that includes at least one more parakeet of the same species. When they are raised alone, they usually manifest boredom and sadness, especially when the owners are away from home.
These specimens have adapted very much to domestic life, which prevents them from surviving easily in the wild, because they would not be able to provide their own food, they would have difficulties to fly properly and would be in danger when exposed to predators.
Preparing the habitat of the parakeets
A good cage, wide enough to allow them to move easily, is the best habitat for Australian parakeets. Ideally, it should be rectangular and not circular. The basic complements that the cage should have are a feeding trough, a drinking trough and a bathtub, which should be washed every three or four days. In addition, it is important to change the sprue water daily.
It is preferable that the material of the cage is stainless steel, although aluminum can also be used. The important thing is that they are easy to clean and do not represent a danger to the animal. Inside, it is preferable that the floor has a grid that prevents the parakeets from having direct contact with their stools.
The place where the cage is located should be warm, with a temperature that oscillates between 20 ° and 25 ° C. and with enough natural light. The parakeets should be protected from the air currents and with access to the sun, although always taking care that their direct exposure will generate some sunstroke problem.

Feeding the Australian parakeets

In regard to their food, it is based on the consumption of birdseed, millet and various seeds. In veterinarians and specialized centers offer balanced meals or mixtures that are composed of a mixture of seeds enriched with vitamins and minerals, providing the necessary nutrients for the proper development of the bird.
The diet of Australian parakeets should also include moist foods such as fruits and vegetables; Foods such as carrots, spinach and lettuce are ideal to strengthen the health of these birds.
Also, it is necessary to include in your diet oily seeds and prepared with minerals that help them to have an adequate digestion. The consumption of these preparations has double benefit: on the one hand, it provides them with the minerals necessary for their development; on the other hand, it helps them to crush the seeds that are contained in their crop, improving their digestion.
Foods such as chocolate, parsley and avocado are harmful to Australian parakeets and should be avoided at all costs. In addition, the consumption of other products such as bread should be properly dosed in order to avoid any problem of overweight in the animal.

Reproduction and offspring of Australian parakeets

The breeding in pairs of this type of bird allows a better control of the broodstock and their offspring. The success of reproduction is not a complicated issue, it is only a matter of having a cage sufficiently large and special for young and incorporate a nest as it serves as an incentive for procreation.
In general, the nest is made of wood with a small hole that facilitates the entry and exit of the players. In addition, it has a door that serves to check inside if necessary. It is advisable to acquire those that are installed outside the cage, since it allows better handling.
The breeding stock, on average, between two and eight eggs, in an incubation time that ends at two or three weeks. Newborn chicks are defenseless and depend on feeding directly by their parents. After the fourth week they will be able to leave the nest.
With an average lifespan of between 4 and 6 years, the Australian parakeets are ideal as pets since they do not usually give major problems in their care, being an excellent alternative for those who want to start in the breeding of birds. Following the advice given in this mini guide, it is possible to successfully breed these beautiful birds.

Malassezia dermatitis in dogs

Formerly known as Pityrosporum, Malassezia is a type of fungus classified as yeast, which is present in the skin of both humans and animals. Currently, about 10 species are recognized, of which M. pachydermatis is considered a secondary pathogen in the skin disease of dogs.
In general, Malassezia is present in the skin of dogs. In case the animal has a healthy skin, the presence of this type of fungus does not cause major problem; Now, if the skin is damaged or the pet has low defenses, it is possible that a multiplication of the yeasts is generated, giving rise to the appearance of Malassezia dermatitis.
Although all animals are susceptible to developing Malassezia dermatitis, there is a genetic factor that predisposes a certain breed of dogs to suffer from this problem. In addition, some factors may favor the proliferation of the fungus, such as excessive production of fat on the skin, problems of humidity in the environment, allergies or difficulties in the immune system of the animal.

Tests to diagnose Malassezia dermatitis

The diagnosis of Malassezia dermatitis is made with a dermatological test, through the microscopic analysis of a sample taken from the area of ​​the skin that has been affected. Also, the veterinarian is likely to scrape the skin or apply the adhesive tape technique, which is very effective for skin lesions.
Being a habitual resident in the skin of dogs, are often generate doubts among specialists on whether the Malassezia is the real cause of certain symptoms presented by the pet, therefore, it is important that the veterinarian rule out other pathologies that may be generating the problem, such as an allergic reaction to some medication, skin infections or atopy.
Depending on the result obtained, the specialist will be able to determine if it is Malassezia that causes the problem in the skin or turns out to be a secondary disorder to another pathology that needs another treatment. The appropriate diagnosis is usually confirmed according to the response to the treatment indicated by the veterinarian.

Treatment of Malassezia dermatitis

In principle, it is advisable to carry out a topical treatment, with special lotions and shampoos prepared with boric or acetic acid. This, to avoid any possibility of side effects that can be generated with systemic treatment.
According to the severity, the specialized veterinarian will establish the appropriate treatment to cure Malassezia dermatitis. Medications such as Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole are some of the most indicated alternatives. Cortisone may also be necessary as a complement to therapy.
As for care at home, it is necessary to keep the dog clean in order to reduce the amount of fat on the skin. Periodic baths with a degreasing shampoo together with some fungicide product prescribed by the veterinarian can serve as a complement to the treatment. Also, it is advisable to change the diet to rule out any allergy problems.

How to properly care for a land turtle

The turtles form an order in the chain of land reptiles. They are characterized mainly by their long life, being able to pass the 100 years of age, according to the habitat where they are. Land turtles are popularly known for feeding on a herbivorous diet, but the reality is that they are omnivorous. They also eat insects, worms and other proteins.
Of the 250 species of turtles that are known, 5 of them are the most commonly used as pets. Among them we highlight:

  • Haitian or Spanish turtle

    These are found naturally in the Caribbean area and are used to high temperatures. Its carapace is brown and yellow belly, with dark lines around the neck and tail. They do not have large size.

  • False Turtle Map

    It is characterized by having its shell closed at the edges; It is brown, green skin and yellow lines, with a very characteristic brown tone in its mouth. These turtles are found in the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, in the USA.

  • Black turtle

    They are used as pets, although a special permit is needed so that they can be in the homes. They love sunbathing, scratching and bathing. They should be outdoors and with plenty of clean water so they can cool off.

  • Red-legged turtle

These turtles come from Central America and can reach approximately 36 cm in captivity, although it varies according to their habitat. Its carapace is dark brown with the center of a yellow tone. They are red-footed or, in some cases, orange.

The correct feeding of land turtles

Land turtles feed between 2 and 3 times a week. They must have a healthy and balanced diet, without excessive fiber, depending on their habitat and size. Their diet is omnivorous, so they feed on leaves, flowers, fruits, vegetables, worms and crickets, among other insects. It is necessary that they have a space with plenty of water so that they can drink and refresh freely.
Taking into account their diet, it is important to name some of the foods that we should avoid giving to land turtles. Among them, we can find; potatoes, grains, dairy products, corn, bamboo, citrus fruits, asparagus, dates, spinach, bananas, grapes, or other food that generates a negative effect on the turtle when eating it.

Most common diseases that land turtles suffer

Like all living beings, land turtles also often suffer from certain diseases, these are some of the most common and frequent:
Inflammation in your eyes: Can be caused by contaminated water and / or poor hygiene, also due to lack of vitamins; in this case, your eyes are cleansed with physiological solution. If it does not improve, it is most likely that you have an infection so it is recommended to take it to the veterinarian of exotic species.
Piramidism: It is the deformation or bulge of its shell, this happens when the turtles do not receive frequent baths of water or direct sun. Also, it could be due to an inadequate diet. For this there is no treatment, if it is detected from the beginning will have to devote more care regarding the above.
Bite or scratch problems: Many times this usually happens if there are more than two turtles in space, or some other animal that may cause damage. In this case, we often have to supervise and check our pets. If you get any wound, you should wash the area with enough water and clean it with some antiseptic; If necessary, cover the wound with gauze or bandages.
Shell fractures: It is important to clarify that the fractures or wounds of the carapace are different, depending on their severity. The wound is disinfected carefully to observe in more detail the damage caused. The advisable thing in this case, is to take it of urgency to the veterinary clinic.
Sneezing and cough: These are infections of viral, bacterial or fungal origin that produce nasal discharge, state of sickly drowsiness, loss of appetite, excess oral mucus and even panting in turtles. It occurs due to lack of vitamins or as a result of poor hygiene in the space where the animal is.
Herpes-virus: It is the most terrible disease that land turtles suffer. It is spread by sexual contact only between turtles. It is diagnosed by observing whitish mucus, irritated eyes, pus plaques, buccal bleeding. These symptoms resemble acute stomatitis and have no cure.

Suggestions and recommendations for the care of the land turtle

If you have a land turtle as a pet, we suggest keeping it in a large place with enough vegetative terrain, abundant water and where you can sunbathe, simulating its natural habitat, taking into account the hygiene of the space.
For your turtle to have a healthy life, we recommend, among other things, vitamin supplements, calcium, phosphorus, minerals, and take it frequently to be reviewed by the veterinarian specializing in exotic animals.
If we observe that our land turtle is suffering symptoms such as diarrhea or constipation, it is best to change your diet. If you suffer from diarrhea, it can be a cause of poor digestion, so we should reduce fiber foods and excess fruit.
When you have constipation problems we must do the opposite, give a diet rich in fiber, fruits and plenty of water to achieve their improvement.
Calcium is the main element so that the shell of the land turtle grows healthy and strong, for this reason, it is very important that the turtles maintain a diet rich in this and other minerals. Nor can it be overlooked that turtles that live in captivity or as pets in enclosed spaces, should be exposed to the sun at least 15 minutes a day, as sunlight intervenes in the fixation of calcium.
It is important to note that, like all reptiles, the land turtle is a carrier of salmonella, easily transmitted to humans. Therefore, we must maintain a correct hygiene, and thus avoid contagion.
The general health of land turtles is related to the frequency of interaction with their natural environment, that is, if they sunbathe and bathe in water. Turtles are reptiles that have the shell as their best defense, protect it through a good diet and minimum exposure to the sun will guarantee a long and healthy life.

Rabbits paralytic ileus

Paralytic ileus is a common digestive disease in rabbits. Also known as gastrointestinal stasis, it manifests with a decrease in bowel peristalsis, that is, paralysis of bowel movements.
One of its causes may be due to the presence of a foreign object (cloth, plastic, hair, etc.) that has become stuck. Another, when the animal stops eating due to stress or when it is fed an inadequate diet, which makes it difficult for the digestion process to be carried out correctly.

Symptoms of paralytic ileus

If a rabbit is suffering from paralytic ileus, it can manifest in several ways:

  • Reduction or loss of appetite.
  • Decrease in stool secretion.
  • Decayed behavior.
  • Impossibility to walk.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Grinding teeth or bruxism to express pain.
  • Strong breathing

The veterinarian must be taken to the veterinarian to diagnose accurately, through X-rays and measuring the level of glucose in the blood, if the intestines are clogged or is another cause of the pathology.

Treatment of paralytic ileus in rabbits

To improve the intestinal health of the rabbit, the treatment consists in the ingestion of analgesics to calm the pain, as well as the application of fluid therapy, in order to balance the volumes of internal fluids.
Touch stimulation is a practice that is done to the animal and consists of a series of constant massages to stimulate the stool evacuation process.
In the most severe cases, where the obstruction is persistent after having performed the treatments recommended by the veterinarian, the surgical intervention of the rabbit is the only treatment to end his ailment.
Antibiotics such as enrofloxacin, sulfonamides and metronidazole are the most recommended by specialists. With the supply of them, the propagation of secondary bacteria to the intestinal stasis picture is avoided.
This pathology favors the appearance of gastric ulcers and one way to avoid it is by providing gastric protectors such as ranitidine 3-5 mg / kg, sucralfate 25 mg / kg or cimetidine 5-10 mg / kg.
If an obstruction is ruled out, it is viable to stimulate intestinal mobility with drugs such as prokinetics.

Adequate diet to attack the paralytic ileus at the roots

It is important to keep the rabbit hydrated and with a balanced diet, rich in essential fibers, for the optimal functioning of your body. Hay is essential since it must mean 80% of the diet. The rest is complemented with fresh vegetables and controlled portions of always raw fruits.
This food is very important because its lack is causing diseases such as paralytic ileus or degeneration of the teeth. It constitutes the main source of fibers to maintain the health of rabbits in optimal conditions.
In the case of processed foods, we must take special care that they do not become their usual diet. That is, dog and cat foods are not recommended because they are high in carbohydrates and harmful components, such as preservatives and chemicals, that affect the balance of nutrients.
Keep in mind that nuts, legumes and cereals, iceberg lettuce, cauliflower, meat, dairy, and fruit in syrup are harmful to your health.

Cats eye diseases

The eyes of cats are their main attraction, their colors and characteristics generate curiosity and admiration. One of the superior functions is that they can see in the darkness with more precision and detail than human beings. However, the eye health of felines is affected by developing pathologies such as conjunctivitis, protrusion of the third eyelid, keratitis, glaucoma or feline chlamydiosis, among others. Next, let’s find out which are the most common eye diseases in cats.
The eye organs of felines are very delicate, in fact, many of the diseases they suffer, such as feline influenza or feline herpes, affect their eyes. However, there are also localized pathologies.

Types of eye diseases in cats

Feline chlamydiosis is caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila felis, which spreads easily from one cat to another only by physical contact, which is why it is common when they live in the same space. This disease is among the most common suffered by felines.
The causative agent is also known as the one that causes conjunctivitis, the main symptom of the disease. This is a way in which the body expresses infections that can be caused by other complications, such as feline herpes.
This disease affects the ocular mucosa, so we will notice that the cat will have an eye that is red and tearing, because the membrane that covers the eyelid is inflamed. In addition, the feline will be constantly winking. There are several levels of conjunctivitis: serous, follicular and, in its most serious state, purulent.
It is important to bear in mind that the treatment must be applied after having previously detected the causative bacteria, for which it is necessary to be very aware of the reactions of the cats and their environment, since a late detection complicates their cure.
Like all bacteria, they must be combated with antibiotics. In these cases, 1% fusidic acid or chlortetracycline can be administered topically, and doxycycline can be administered systemically.
Feline herpes and feline calicivirus are also causes of conjunctivitis.
Facolitic uveitis and glaucoma are diseases that are directly related. The first infection develops due to pathologies such as feline leukemia, peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and fungi. The second is one of the consequences of suffering the first.
Glaucoma is also caused by genetics, street fights or accidents. It is silent and degenerative, therefore, it is common among elderly felines. It occurs when the aqueous humor of the eye causes pressure on the optic nerve, generating its obstruction and weakening the retina.
When symptoms such as vision loss, headaches, pupillary dilation with blurred bluish appearance, manifest themselves, the disease is already in its most advanced state.
However, there are treatments that go according to the cause of glaucoma, meaning that you have to determine the fungus or the type of infection to attack in the first place. Afterwards, it is possible to stop glaucoma, although not recovering lost vision.
Discomforts are minimized with eye salve, to restore the nervous system and regulate the concentration of aqueous humor. Anti-inflammatories or analgesics calm pain.
On the other hand, there are the cataracts that occur because the crystalline lens loses transparency. The only treatment is veterinary surgery, which, if not carried out, will generate loss of balance, pain and blindness in the pussycat. It is also a degenerative disease that manifests mostly in elderly felines.

Common signs of eye infection

  • Swollen eyelids until closing eyes

Large, half-opened eyes are symptoms of serious eye infections in cats. The difference while sleeping, or closed by discomfort, is evident because it manifests with other signs of infection.

  • Lashes

Cats are constantly segregating, from the tear, substances of different consistencies and wateriness, so this is an expression of the state of your health. Purulent, yellow or green mucus, along with a foul odor, is a manifestation of infections.

  • Sclera

When the white part of the eye, the sclera, is inflamed, it becomes pink from the cut blood vessels caused by the swelling. This is an obvious manifestation of allergies, infections or glaucoma.

  • Opacity of the eye

The eyes of felines are characterized by being bright and very bright; When there are presence of infections they become opaque. The eye dries because the tear flow diminishes, then, the reflections before the human sight will be difficult to see.

  • Hides more than usual

When feeling irritated or threatened by pain and other bothersome symptoms, the cat will hide more than usual to avoid contact with its environment. You may react negatively when you touch your head or eyes.

Care for eye diseases in cats

Vaccines can prevent diseases such as feline flu and chlamydiosis. The vaccination process should start as soon as they stop consuming breast milk; the most important are the trivalent vaccine that protects them from feline panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis and calicivirus.
To clean the eyes with lukewarm water, physiological solution or chamomile, it is important when it is being applied the treatment to fight the infections. It is necessary that the infected secretions be removed as much as they are exposed. When cleaning it, it must be done with great care since the annoyance puts them in an irritable mood. For each eye a cotton, this prevents the infection from spreading.
Baby cats are the most likely to develop infections, either because they were born in infected places or because of the sensitivity of the organs at this stage. You have to be very attentive to the state of your eyes. The drops that are recommended by specialized veterinarians so that the infection does not spread are usually physiological solutions.
Sterilization is essential, since most eye diseases spread because cats attack each other when looking for a female to mate with.
The recommendations presented here must be followed to the letter to avoid complications in the health of the cats. All antibiotics need to be prescribed by the veterinarian, since to supply them in a wrong way can cause resistance to the bacteria which would complicate the treatment.
Sterilize, vaccinate and protect on time are actions that guarantee the health of felines because they take them away from dangerous agents, such as the street and other sick cats.

Pets heart problems

Did you know that pets can suffer from heart problems?
Moreover, unfortunately, it is usually a much more common problem than you think. As in people, the cardiovascular system in pets can malfunction, so the early detection of any heart condition that can lead to heart disease is essential.

¿What are the most common heart diseases in pets?

The incidence of deaths from heart disease in domestic animals has been increasing in recent years, being, in most cases, an acquired condition.
In dogs, some common heart disorders can be identified, such as heart vascular problems, a condition in which the valves weaken and begin to leak blood; pericardial disease, in which the protective sac of the heart fills with fluid; myocarditis, in which inflammation of the heart occurs due to a bacterial infection; arrhythmia, which alters the heart rhythm; and the disease of the heart parasite, which is transmitted by carrier mosquitoes.
For their part, cats also have heart problems, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy being the most common condition in them, consisting of the thickening of the heart walls. Other diseases, such as aortic stenosis, also cause thickening of the ventricular wall, while systemic hypertension, consists of a persistent elevation of feline blood pressure.

Symptoms that indicate heart problems in pets

It is possible to identify different signs in pets that can give us light regarding the presence of a problem in the heart.
In general, animals that have heart problems have difficulty breathing normally. In them, the frequency of breathing increases during the nights so it is convenient to check your breathing index.
Persistent cough is another sign that can indicate a heart problem in the pet. This symptom is usually manifested in dogs because cats do not cough when they have some disease in the heart.
Any fluctuation in the weight of the pet can also be an indicator of a heart problem. Whether it manifests a weight loss or an increase in body weight, it is necessary to turn on the alerts and take it to a review with the veterinarian.
A persistent agitation or reluctance to perform physical activity can indicate a problem in the heart of the pet. Many times, we may notice that the animal is shaken very fast after a short walk or that it resists running.
Identifying as soon as possible any suspicion of heart problem in pets is fundamental to improve the quality of life of pets. If you are alert and have detected some of the indicated symptoms, take it immediately to a veterinarian specialized in cardiology, who will perform the necessary exams for an accurate diagnosis.

Cognitive dysfunction in pets

One of the most common mistakes among those who have animals at home is to think that some changes in the behavior or physical condition of their pets are due to the passage of time and that there is nothing that can be done about it. The truth is that there are certain pathologies that can manifest in the animal and be confused as symptoms of old age. One of these pathologies is the syndrome of cognitive dysfunction, a progressive disease, similar to Alzheimer’s in people, which must be known to take the necessary measures to improve the condition of the pet.

¿What is cognitive dysfunction syndrome?

When we talk about the syndrome of cognitive dysfunction we are referring to a state of dementia that occurs in companion animals, in which the cognitive process is compromised and manifested with changes in behavior, motor alterations and problems in their health.
The cognitive dysfunction syndrome directly impacts on the behavior of the pet, being able to be aggressive and irritable due to the sensation of discomfort due to the decrease of mobility as a cause of a degenerative process of the joints of the body.
This problem occurs in some animals when they are in advanced age and is a consequence of the degeneration of the central nervous system. It is a progressive disease with a very high prevalence, although many cases do not even get diagnosed.

¿What are the symptoms that occur in pets?

There are four categories in which the symptoms related to cognitive dysfunction syndrome in pets are classified:
The first category refers to the disorientation that pets suffer and, in general, is the first symptom that occurs in animals. The owners identify that the pet is confused and has problems recognizing its environment and moves from one place to another, without a specific address.
In addition, the animal tends to bark and be fearful because it does not recognize what is around it.
In the second category, changes are manifested in the social relationships of the pet, showing hostility to other animals, as well as little communication with their owners. The animal decreases the frequency of its games, becomes more irritable and tends to isolate itself.
The symptoms that are part of the third category are related to alterations in the sleep cycle since the pet considerably reduces its rest hours at night, spending a great part of the day sleeping. These changes usually go unnoticed by the owners.
Other symptoms related to the syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and that are grouped in the fourth category are associated with the alteration of the learning processes, manifested with the loss of defecation and urination habits. Pets forget the habit of making their depositions, making them in different parts of the house.

¿How is the cognitive dysfunction syndrome diagnosed?

The veterinarian, through the performance of certain tests, can determine the condition of cognitive dysfunction in the pet. Usually, the diagnosis is made by exclusion because it discards any other disease that may be generating the same symptoms. By observing and analyzing samples, the specialist will be able to determine if the animal in advanced age has any special pathology or suffers from cognitive dysfunction syndrome.
The observation is made by the veterinarian through a complete physical examination and a thorough investigation of the animal’s clinical history. Depending on the symptoms presented, the specialist will perform additional tests that include a blood test and a blood count. Other more specific tests that include ultrasounds and radiographs may also serve to rule out any pathology.
Many times, the veterinarian may order a computerized axial tomography or an MRI scan because the alterations in the animal’s behavior may be due to problems in the central nervous system.
With the discarding of any other disease that may be generating similar symptoms, the specialist will be able to diagnose the syndrome of cognitive dysfunction.

¿What is the treatment of cognitive dysfunction syndrome?

It is important to take into account that the cognitive dysfunction syndrome can not be cured since it constitutes a progressive and gradual deterioration, so the primary treatment is referred to the relief of the symptoms, especially in the cases in which they are related to some specific problem
Thus, in cases in which pain has to be relieved, the specialist may prescribe analgesics, while, to reduce anxiety, may order some medication as a therapeutic option.
Being a process of progressive deterioration, it is essential to start treatment as soon as possible, through the application of behavior modification therapy in the animal, a food therapy and a therapy based on the intake of drugs.
Recommendations to improve the quality of life of pets
The early identification of this condition is essential to alleviate the effects on our pets. Therefore, the owner should be alert and notice any changes that may occur in the behavior of the animal, especially if you are of advanced age. Before the first suspicions, it is necessary to take it as soon as possible to the veterinary office so that they carry out the pertinent analyzes to him.
A special diet, based on a decrease in calories and the consumption of feed rich in antioxidants and protectors of cell membranes, can be of great help to improve animal conditions. Both the feed and any food supplement should be supervised and recommended by the veterinarian.
Short walks and activities that stimulate your mind, are recommended actions to improve the quality of life of pets. This will help increase their interest in the environment and increase social interactions.
Finally, some drugs that increase blood flow to the brain have proven to be very effective in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction syndrome. The specialist will be able to determine which of them is the most convenient for your pet.

How to detect feline leukemia

One of the most frequent and deadly infectious diseases for cats is feline leukemia, caused by a retrovirus that attacks its immune system and which is the main reason for non-traumatic mortality of domestic cats. If you want to know which are the routes of transmission of this disease and what preventive measures should be adopted, pay attention to the following note.

What is feline leukemia?

The feline leukemia virus – ViLeF was identified more than 50 years ago as one of the possible causes of lymphosarcomas in cats. Scientists believe that the virus was transmitted by rats, becoming a feline virus. This type of oncovirus is associated with both neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases.
The virus is found in body fluids of cats that have been infected, especially in urine and saliva. Its transmission occurs through contact between cats, sharing the feeder or in fights. In puppies, infection can occur through breastfeeding of the infected mother or occur during pregnancy.
The virus multiplies rapidly in the body of the infected cat. There is a chance that the feline’s own immune system will eliminate the virus completely, but it will depend on the cat’s body health and the strength of its defenses. Otherwise, symptoms begin to appear soon, especially in young kittens.

Symptoms and treatment of feline leukemia

A cat infected with the leukemia virus can present very unspecific symptoms; however, the most common are loss of appetite, decreased body weight, anemia, fever, lethargy, diarrhea and constant vomiting. In addition, it usually presents infections of the upper respiratory tract and a deformation of its coat.
The coincidence of the symptoms with other types of pathologies makes its correct diagnosis difficult, so it is necessary that the cat be evaluated by a veterinarian. Leukemia virus infections can be detected with specific laboratory tests for these cases.
Although there is no effective treatment against the feline leukemia virus, the actions are focused on two methods of antiretroviral therapy, through the ingestion of drugs to control the replication of the virus and immunomodulatory drugs in order to enhance the immune response and always indicated by an expert oncological team.
The veterinarian also directs his efforts towards the control of secondary diseases that usually accompany the presence of the feline leukemia virus.
The best way to control the proliferation of the virus and keep our pet protected is to avoid coming into contact with infected cats; In addition, regular monitoring in the veterinary clinic is essential for the care of cats.
The specialist will determine the vaccine regimen that should be followed to prevent feline leukemia, taking into account that antigenic testing of the disease has been carried out before the vaccination.

Everything you need to know about lovebirds

They are known as inseparable birds or love birds, they belong to a native species of Africa and their beauty has dazzled many; we are referring to agapornis, a very sociable type of bird that is present in many homes in our country. If you want to know in detail the care you must have in their upbringing, here we tell you everything you need to know about lovebirds.

Where they come from and types of agapornis

Agapornis is a bird that belongs to the family of parrots, originally from different parts of the African continent. Its name derives from the Greek words agape, meaning affection and ornis, which means bird, hence its name bird of love. Their sociable and inseparable nature makes them, as a couple, show much love together, cuddling and feathering each other.
In total there are 9 species, among which, the best known is the agapornis roseicollis, which is characterized by the body feathers in green and reddish face. It usually measures between 15 and 17cm and does not present an ocular ring. Another very common species is agapornis personata, which is a little smaller and has as its main feature a dark face and a white eye ring.
Agapornis lilianae is one of the smallest, reaching barely 13cm in height; It has an orange face and shows white eye rings. On the other hand, agapornis fischeri measures around 14cm and its main difference is the red color of its beak. In general, all species of lovebirds show a short tail and a very colorful plumage.

Characteristics of lovebirds

The main characteristic of lovebirds is their ability to socialize with both humans and other birds and their own species. In addition, they usually express their mood easily, being relatively easy to identify when they are calm, upset, happy or sad.
Their life expectancy is around 12 years, although, depending on their diet and the care they have received, they can reach 14 or 15 years of age.
One of the most common questions is how to know if the bird is female or male ?. One way to find out is by its size; Male lovebirds are usually smaller than females, mainly due to the effort involved in laying eggs. In addition, the bones of the pelvis of the female are more separated than those of the male, showing a more rounded appearance.
Also, it is possible to identify differences in the head of the female, which is more rounded than that of the male; likewise, the beak of the female is more prominent. As for the character, the females are more territorial and are much more aggressive with other birds than the males.

¿How should the cage of lovebirds be?

It is very important to know the characteristics that the cage should have where the agapornis will live. The size should be large enough so that the bird has the freedom to fly and move with ease. The ideal dimensions will depend on the number of birds, however, it is necessary to know that, for a couple, a cage measures 100x50x50cm will be sufficient.
A key point is to avoid round cages and give preference to rectangular cages. This is because the lovebirds need to have a point of reference to feel a greater tranquility and confidence. In addition, we must take care that the distance between the bars is not greater than 1.5cm, in order to prevent your head from getting stuck between them.
It is recommended to use a lower rack in the cages, in order to prevent the lovebirds eating food that has fallen and is in contact with their feces. A newspaper or special ground for birds will help facilitate cleaning.
The cleaning of their cages is fundamental for their tranquility, since these animals are very clean. The frequency of cleaning should be weekly, disinfecting the cage in its entirety with the help of a cloth moistened in a limited amount of sodium hypochlorite, being necessary to rinse with water and leave it dry at the end.

Care of lovebirds

Agapornis are birds that need a temperature between 18 ° C and 25 ° C, so it is ideal that the cage is located inside the house. However, this will depend on the area in which it is raised, avoiding runners and air currents. The cornered walls are usually the ideal places to place the cages, since they avoid gusts of wind and give a sense of security to the birds.
As for their diet, they must have a balanced diet, composed mainly of feed, seeds of canary seed, carcass, yellow millet, white millet and flaxseed. Other compounds that include buckwheat, peeled and black oats can complement your diet. Also, strawberries, apples, pears, lettuce leaves and green beans may be included in chopped portions, although less frequently.
Among the most common diseases that occur, we find respiratory acariasis, catarrh, asthma symptoms, or some that attack your digestive system, such as enteritis, colibacillosis or dysentery. The lack of vitamins produces the anomalous moult, in which the feathers begin to fall or look disorganized.
Other less common pathologies are psittacosis or salmonellosis. In all cases, it is necessary to go to the veterinarian’s office specialized in exotic animals to determine the actions that should be followed for their care.
Agapornis are very smart and ideal birds to breed and train, especially from an early age. In addition, they are very affectionate and fun, so they are excellent to have as pets. With proper care, it is an excellent decision to have them at home.

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