Category: Exotic animals

Types, characteristics and care of cockatoos

Affectionate and attractive, cockatoos are very popular exotic birds worldwide. Originating in the Australasia region, which includes Australia, Melanesia and New Zealand, these birds are very dear as pets, despite being notoriously loud and difficult to care for.

That is why in this article we have thought it convenient to give you some important advice about the characteristics of cockatoos and the care that should be taken when raising them.

Types of cockatoos

In the world there are 21 species of cockatoos, with around 15 being the best known and adopted as domestic animals. They are long-lived birds, some of which come to live more than 50 years.

The nymph cockatoo, one of the best known species, usually lives between 10 and 14 years, while the alba cockatoo can reach 10 years of life. In general, the average life of these exotic animals is 20 to 25 years.

The nymph, also known as the quarrion cockatoo, is one of the smallest species that exists, measuring around 30 cm. These animals are recognized by their gray eyes, beaks and legs, yellow on the face and orange on their cheeks.

On the other hand, the Galah cockatoo or pink breast, reaches about 35 cm, weighs between 250 gr. and 340 gr. and it is a very common species throughout Oceania. He is recognized for having a gray back and a pink chest and face, being of unique plumage within his family.

Another highly prized bird among breeders is the yellow-billed cockatoo, also known as galerita. It has its habitat in the tropical and subtropical forests of Australia, Papua, New Guinea and Indonesia, measures around 50 cm and weighs 900 gr. Its feathers are white and has a very characteristic yellow crest.

In addition to those mentioned, other highly valued species are the Alba cockatoo, the Calyptorhynchus banksii or Coliroja cockatoo, the Calyptorhynchus latirostris or the Piquicorta funeral cockatoo, the standard cockatoo and the salmon-crested cockatoo.

Most outstanding characteristics of cockatoos

In terms of characteristics, some types of cockatoos differ markedly from the rest of their species, however, we can find some common peculiarities in all of them.

The size of the most popular species is between 30cm and 60cm and its weight can reach 300gr in the smallest species and 1200gr in the largest.

Another remarkable feature of cockatoos is the plume they have on their heads, which they lift in moments of excitement or when they touch the ground after a flight. In addition, they have a curved beak.

Cockatoos have short legs and use their claws to move and climb branches. The male’s beak is a bit bigger and hunched than the female’s. Another issue that differentiates males from females is the muted hue of the plumage’s color. These animals often use their beaks to help them climb.

The noise generated by a cockatoo is also its hallmark. Although it is a condition that it shares with parrots, the noise of a cockatoo is usually noticeably more excessive, so much so that it can be heard more than a kilometer away. It is important to take this condition into account as it does not make them ideal pets for small spaces.

His relationship with human beings is usually good thanks to his affectionate character. However, the process to tame them and gain their trust can be long and somewhat complicated. Also, although most cockatoos are docile, some can be aggressive and frantic.

Care of cockatoos

Like most pets, caring for cockatoos requires time and patience. At first, you will notice that these birds are kept locked in their cage, showing frightened and / or aggressive. This is absolutely normal and it is advisable to give them time to adapt to the environment.

It is advisable that, little by little, the bird gets used to the voice of its owner. That will make the cockatoo come into trust and establish links with its master. We can recognize that the cockatoo has taken confidence when it approaches the call. If necessary, it is convenient to caress your loin gently without removing it from the cage.

Some people decide to have the cockatoo out of their cage, in total freedom inside the house. Although this does not represent a problem, it is advisable that you get used to using your cage to sleep and eat and that at certain times you can walk around the house, free. That way, it will be easier to transfer it to the veterinarian if necessary.

The cockatoo cage should be rectangular, taller than wide, made of stainless steel and be spacious enough so that it can play without problems. It is important that the bars have no more than 2cm of separation, that way we avoid that you can jam your head between the bars.

Their diet should be composed of seeds, foods of plant origin and feed. Cockatoos love to eat fruits, especially peaches, bananas and apples. Their diet may include pulp of mangoes and papayas, although this can cause stomach problems due to their high fiber content, so the amounts should be controlled.

Green vegetables such as lettuce and chard are also well received by cockatoos. Also, sweet potatoes, carrots and pumpkins can be included. Eggplant, milk and potatoes, as well as sweets and caffeine, should be avoided at all costs.

Among the most common diseases of cockatoos, we find the common cold, the attack of mites and diarrhea. Some much more serious are psittacosis and ovarian occlusion. In all cases, it is advisable to visit the veterinarian to start the appropriate treatment.

Did you dare to have a cockatoo as a pet at home? As you can see, these exotic birds are very intelligent and affectionate, but they require special care and certain conditions that you must take into account before making the final decision.

Hedgehogs: guidelines for having them as pets

More and more households are deciding to have a hedgehog as a pet in different parts of the world, mainly due to the ease in their care. However, it is necessary to take into account some other aspects that are very important for your well-being.

Is it legal to have a hedgehog as a pet in Spain? How many species of hedgehogs exist? What foods to give it? how often? These and other questions regarding the breeding of hedgehogs are answered in this article.

Legal status of hedgehog breeding in Spain

The first thing that must be taken into account is the legal situation of raising hedgehogs in our country. In accordance with current regulations, the distribution of African dwarf hedgehogs Atelerix Albiventris and its hybrids is prohibited, and the generic prohibition of their possession, transport, traffic and trade is also applied.

Thus, the possession of these animals today is not allowed. However, the same regulations establish that those hedgehogs acquired before the standard, which dates from 2013, can be maintained by their owners, who are prohibited from marketing, reproducing or transferring their copies.

However, it should be noted that there is a more domestic species called African Pygmy Hedgehog, which is a hybrid between the African hedgehog and the moruno. This species is the most common in Spanish homes, although, in good terms, it is also reached by the ban.

Therefore, it is best to consult with the competent authorities about the possibility of keeping a hedgehog as a pet in the community in which you reside.

Main characteristics of hedgehogs

Despite being a small, quiet, independent and solitary little animal, the hedgehog can be raised as a pet with other species such as dogs and cats, it is enough to delimit the spaces that inhabit to achieve an adequate coexistence and avoid fights and confrontations.

In the world there are a total of 16 species of hedgehogs, being the African pygmy that is usually adopted as a pet. It has rigid spikes that work as a method of protection, so you need to be careful when touching it.

These animals can measure between 10cm and 15cm maximum and their weight can reach 400gr. By its nature, the hedgehog is a solitary and nocturnal animal; During the day he is usually sleeping in his burrow and during the night he goes out to exercise and look for his food.

It is common to observe that the hedgehog maintains a restless breath and constantly moves the nose, sniffing everything around it. Its sharp nails serve to dig the earth in search of food, feeding on insects and worms.

Caring for these exotic animals

Despite being very lonely, hedgehogs adapt very well to living with humans. However, for your care it is necessary to prepare a cage according to certain important considerations.

The cage should have enough space to be comfortable; between 1.5mts and 2mts is the ideal length. In addition, the base must be protected with a suitable material to absorb its waste. It is advisable to use paper since other material can damage your spikes.

On the inside of the cage a burrow should be installed dark enough to have a good rest. The cage should also have a space with soil for the pet to dig.

This cage must be located in a place protected from direct sun and air currents; Warm climates are perfect for them so we must ensure that they do not go cold in the autumn and winter months.

It is important to keep the cage clean and disinfected. Similarly, it is advisable to clean the pet from time to time with clean water, rubbing its spikes with a soft bristle brush.

Common pathologies that hedgehogs have

In their natural habitat, hedgehogs usually travel many kilometers per day, which is why ample space is recommended for their care, otherwise, they can stress and modify their behavior becoming sullen. Also, the lack of physical activity makes them gain weight and makes them prone to certain diseases or pathologies.

In addition to obesity, the cold is one of the most common problems in hedgehogs, so it is recommended to keep room temperature controlled. If possible, a heater should be placed nearby to keep the space warm in especially cold times.

Another common problem in hedgehogs is the attack of fleas, ticks and mites. These parasites can transmit many diseases to the animal so it is essential to keep your cage clean and disinfected. There are some commercial disinfectant products that can be purchased at specialized veterinary clinics.

Changes or alterations in diet can also cause diarrhea or stomach difficulties. Although it is usually a transitory problem, if it is persistent it will be necessary to take the animal to a review with the vet.

In case of any suspicion of having a health problem, it is essential to go with the specialist to rule out any disease that could endanger the life of the animal.

Hedgehog feeding

The feeding of these animals should be based on insects, fruits and vegetables. Ideally, give him food only once a day in the afternoon, in order to avoid any problems of being overweight.

Maintaining an adequate balance in the feeding of the hedgehog is essential for the good state of your health; Therefore, the veterinarian may recommend another type of food or vitamin supplement for proper care and maintenance.

Keep in mind that hedgehogs are somewhat distrustful animals, so it may take some time to adapt to home life. It’s just a matter of a little patience and care. You will notice that, at the moment of feeling attacked, it protects its soft parts by becoming a ball of spikes; Be careful when touching it as it can be very painful.

Characteristics and peculiarities of the exotic cat

Similar to the Persians both in the physical and in their personality, exotic short-haired cats are a peculiar breed of felines that are characterized by being very calm and friendly, being the perfect animals to adopt as pets.

If you want to know more about this particular and lovely breed of felines, in this article we tell you everything you need to know about the exotic shorthair cat and why it should become the next member of your family.

The exotic cat: a calm and playful pet

Exotic shorthair cats are the result of the mix between Persians, Americans and British shorthair. Their race was obtained from a hybrid between these three races, which is why they are so similar to the Persians, but with the peculiarity of having short hair.

Jane Martinke, a judge of feline breeds, was the first person to make the cross between an American shorthair and a Persian cat and got the CFA to consider a special category for these animals and stop being considered only a variation of the Persians

Although it began to become popular in the 60’s, until 1986 it was not recognized as a race and its particular characteristics were determined. Exotic cats are increasingly requested as pets because they are very easy care, docile and very playful.

Characteristics of the exotic shorthair cat

Physically, the exotic shorthair cat is very similar to Persian. It has a flattened and rounded head, flat snout and wide skull. Its nose is wide and short and has the largest and most open holes.

The traditional exotic cat has a more flat snout compared to the most extreme species, which usually has similar health problems as the Persians. The eyes of the exotic cat are of an intense light color, usually green, although they can also have blue eyes.

Its height is around 30cm and its weight ranges between 3.5 and 6kg. Its fur is short and soft and has the same colors as the Persians, being able to find specimens in black, white, blue, red, cream, chocolate, lilac, gold, silver, tabby, smoked, shaded, bicolor, calico and Himalayas.

It has short, wide and robust legs, and its tail is also short and thick. His body is rounded and his muscles are very marked. The ears are small and rounded tips.

Exotic cat health

The life expectancy of the exotic shorthair cat is between 10 and 15 years. Although it is usually a very healthy animal, due to its flattened face it is very prone to certain pathologies similar to those of Persian, such as dental malocclusions, polycystic kidney disease, oily seborrhea and ringworm, among others.

Another very common health problem in exotic cats is excessive tearing of their eyes, which can cause serious infections in the eye area. That is why it is convenient to observe and clean your eyes frequently.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is another frequent pathology in exotic cats, due to an incorrect development of their heart. Therefore, it is essential to schedule regular visits to the veterinarian and fully comply with your vaccination schedule.

Exotic cat care with short hair

Thanks to the fact that it has a less lush coat than that of Persian, the care of the exotic shorthair cat is not so complicated or thorough, although regular brushing is always necessary to avoid the formation of specks. The care of your fur should be done about three times a week with a special brush; This routine represents a very pleasant moment for the cat.

The feeding of the exotic shorthair cat should consist of a balanced diet, since it has a tendency to gain weight easily. The reason is that it is usually a very calm and calm race, although certain genetic and hereditary factors also influence.

It is advisable to provide a diet rich in animal protein and very low in cereals, in order to ensure its proper growth.

The exotic cat is a very sociable animal both with people and with other animals and pets, and is usually very demanding in terms of attention and pampering. In addition, he is calm and curious and adapts very well to changes and family life.

Particularities of the exotic cat

Exotic cats do not like to be alone at home, so it is advisable to avoid leaving them alone for a long time and provide them with more frequent contact. It is recommended to leave them in the care of an acquaintance in case it is necessary to leave home for a long time.

Due to their particular temperament, if left alone for a long time, the feeling of loneliness they experience can lead to various diseases.

Caring for your eyes is a very important issue, due to excessive tearing. This happens because they can’t hold back the tears, which oxidize when in contact with the air. It is advisable to clean your eyes frequently with a sterile gauze moistened with serum.

They are accustomed to a mild climate, so it is necessary to protect them from excessive cold and heat. Its outgoing, intelligent, affectionate and calm character makes it a very homely animal, so it is easy to educate it.

Providing them with adequate environmental enrichment is essential to improve the quality of life of exotic cats. In the market, there is a wide variety of toys that stimulate your psychic and physical development.

Because of its calm and friendly nature, the exotic shorthair cat is an ideal breed to have as a pet. If you are thinking of adopting a feline for the home, consider having one of these specimens to care for and pamper it with your family.

¿What types of lizards can you have as a pet?

There are many factors to consider when deciding to adopt a pet for the home. The matter becomes even more complicated when we think of having an exotic animal at home, as is the case with lizards. The physical space, the type of lighting and the care in their diet, are just some of the considerations to take into account for a correct decision.

That is why we believe it is convenient to give you some guidelines about what types of lizards you can have as a pet, so that your decision is the best one.

Some considerations about lizards

Lizards, belonging to the group of reptiles, comprise more than 5000 species with particular characteristics. There are different sizes, with and without legs, bright and discreet, insectivorous or omnivorous. Most of them are able to move quickly and skillfully and have a long tongue that allows them to smell around them.

Generally, a lizard can live in its natural habitat for about 25 years, although there have been cases of lizards raised in captivity that have survived until past 30 years. Although scientists have studied in detail various species of lizards, not enough is known about them.

These animals are very intelligent and have particular characteristics to attract their partners and face threats; In addition, they can use body language to communicate with each other.

The most popular types of lizards to have as a pet

The Leopard Gecko is the ideal type of lizard for those who are going to have these types of animals as pets for the first time. Coming from the desert areas of Asia, it is a plump-bodied insectivorous, very popular and easy to care for.

For its part, the green iguana is also one of the most popular lizards among beginners. Its origin is American and is easy to care compared to other animals of its kind, just take special care with the temperature as they are accustomed to tropical climates.

Another one of the very easy-to-care lizards is the bearded dragon, although it demands a large terrarium provided with artificial solar radiation, so the investment necessary to have it as a pet is usually more burdensome.

The green anole, also known as the American chameleon, is a genus of lizard from the Caribbean, Central and South America. Some of them have the peculiarity of changing color and, despite being very common to have them as pets, the investment to condition their environment can be high and they are a bit more delicate than the previous species.

Types of medium care lizards

The horned lizard, coming from the deserts of the border between Mexico and the United States of America, can also be raised as a pet, although due to its special characteristics, its care can lead to many difficulties, especially with regard to its diet .

One of the most appreciated lizards by reptile breeders is the green basilisk, due to its appearance and color. This lizard is medium in size and needs to be raised in an extensive terrarium with a tropical temperature. It feeds on both plants and small lizards and rodents.

The blue-tongued lizard is a lizard native to Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania; It has a wide and triangular head, has a robust body, blue tongue and pink mouth. It is a tame and domesticable species, but it needs an extensive habitat since it is used to long walks.

Originally from Yemen and accustomed to living in forests and desert areas, the veiled chameleon is a type of lizard that requires a type of intermediate care at the domestic level. It feeds mostly on insects, although in its adult life it includes some vegetables in its diet.

The most difficult types of lizards to care for

Basically, certain types of lizards are more difficult to keep in captivity due to their large size or the need for large extensions for their care; Therefore, their upbringing is recommended only for specialists. Let’s see some of them.

Originally from the African desert, the spiny-tailed lizard has the characteristic of using its tail as a defense system against aggressors. It reaches about 50cm and its characteristic color allows it to go unnoticed in its surroundings, protecting itself from danger. It is possible to have it as a pet, although it requires large dimensions.

The Argentine black and white tegus can measure up to a meter and a half, so a large space is required for its care. This species is not climbing and spends most of the day hidden, so you must have a special box to shelter it. It should be kept slightly moist and your diet should include crickets, flour worms and wax worms.

The savanna varano or savanna monitor is a type of large lizard and very popular among experienced breeders. They are usually aggressive in nature and their diet is composed, initially, of insects, spiders and scorpions, and then, in adulthood, rodents, birds and frogs.

Recommendations before having a lizard at home

If this is the first time that you are going to have a lizard as a pet, it is necessary to consult with the exotic veterinarian about the possible risks of raising it. We recommend you start with the smallest and most docile types of lizards.

Lizards tend to grow a lot during their first year of life, so you should provide a terrarium of adequate dimensions for breeding. As a general rule, it is estimated that the size of the terrarium should measure at least three times the size of the lizard in adulthood, both long and tall.

Consult with the specialist about the accessories with which the terrarium should be equipped, as well as the type of food that you should include in your diet.

Ferrets: basic care to have them at home

Energetic, curious and playful, ferrets have managed to adapt to coexistence and the rules of a home, perhaps because of this it is increasingly common to find them in Spanish homes as pets. Domesticated thousands of years ago, these animals require special care that must be known; In the following lines, we tell you the elementary care that you should know to have them at home.
Ferrets are considered exotic animals, for this reason, many people think they are aggressive and can cause damage or require eccentric care. The doubts that arise in this regard are related to certain factors that influence when caring for a ferret. The size of the cage, the type of food and the proper disposition of its waste, form the main questions asked by those who acquire a ferret for the first time.

Behavior of ferrets in their natural habitat

Just as the dog comes from the wolf, the ferrets descend from the polecat. They are carnivores, nocturnal and hunters by nature. To know the elementary care, first we must observe its primitive characteristics.
Ferrets are constantly hiding in holes and dark spaces. They have an excellent sense of smell, the opposite of their visual capacity. The sight is a sense that does not help them, that is why they are guided by the sense of smell.
This ability to sneak through different corners is what makes raising them in the home dangerous for them. Ferrets can get hurt by getting trapped between appliances or electrical cords. It is usually a mortal danger when they are trapped in folding chairs, so it is recommended to keep them away from this type of furniture.

Care in feeding ferrets

The water and food supply must be continuous, he will be in charge of regulating the amounts he ingests. It is very important that you stay hydrated.
In the diet, it is mandatory to include meat, chicken or animal protein. It is not recommended to give them raw food since the meat could contain bacteria and make it sick. In addition, it is necessary to avoid feeding the ferret with excess carbohydrates and fiber.
In the market you can get ferret feed, a food with all the necessary components for its healthy development. In the labeling of the package should reflect between 30% and 35% of animal protein. Meat waste or by-products are not recommended.
To keep them healthy, ferrets must ingest between 15% to 20% fat and a maximum of 4% fiber. Taurine is a major component in the ferret organism, it is an essential amino acid. Vitamins A, E and C are also part of the essential components.
The ferret must avoid some foods harmful to their body:

  • Chocolates or sweets
  • Meat or raw fish, especially pork.
  • Dairy products.
  • Onion derivatives.
  • Condiments
  • The corn, since it is too much fiber and its digestive system does not assimilate it adequately.
  • Remains of food like chicken bones.

The habitat of the ferret

Ferrets, as a pet, measure between 35cm and 40cm in length. When they are in their natural environment or wildlife, they exceed this size. Therefore, the cage should have approximate measurements of 90cm in length, 60cm in width and 70cm in height. Also, you must understand more than two levels so that the ferret can move comfortably.
The cage should be placed in a place without wind and without direct sunlight, since they do not like these climates. They may undergo changes or be subjected to stress if exposed to temperatures above 30 ° C.
It is necessary that between the accessories of the cage there are tunnels, a hammock, bed and safe objects that serve as a toy. They love to play and exercise.
If the cage is large enough, the ferret will be able to fulfill its needs inside the cage as long as the space is far from its place to sleep and eat. In the market there are different types of bed or substrate to absorb odor and moisture.
The products that are available for cats, such as clay sand or Bentonite, are not advisable for ferrets because when they get wet they easily adhere to the ferret’s coat, legs, nose and eyes and it is very difficult to take off. Silica sand and pine shavings are also not advisable since they can have a detrimental effect on the ferret’s respiratory system.
The ones that are recommended are the beds made from recycled paper; They are economical, have a good smell regulation and provide heat. It is comfortable to clean and throw, also has the quality of being biodegradable. It also does not cause damage to the respiratory and liver system of the pet.

Care in the cleaning of ferrets

Ferrets have a characteristic smell that they give off from their characteristic fur oils. For some people it is uncomfortable and they make the mistake of bathing them several times believing that this will be taken away. This is a very common mistake since it is recommended to bathe only once a month.
Because ferrets can not withstand extreme climates or sudden changes in temperature, the water must be clean and warm so that they feel comfortable and can be bathed comfortably.
Ferrets mark the place where they live, therefore, the cage should be thoroughly cleaned once a week. The bed that serves as a bath should be changed preferably every two days.

Castration in ferrets

The endocrine system of ferrets is complex, compared to that of other domestic animals. These animals are prone to suffer from insulinomas, tumors that are created from the acceleration of hormones when the ferret has not been castrated. Another pathology is hyperestrogenism, which occurs when the bone marrow is affected by hormones.
When a ferret is adopted, most of the time the animal is neutered. It is important to be informed about the time of castration, since the intervention must be done after 15 months of life. In some cases, castration is done earlier, which will cause endocrine problems.
These tumors appear because in the adrenal or adrenal glands, located above the kidneys, the hormones are housed and grow until they produce tumors.

Tips for the handling and domestication of the ferret

In the event that the ferret or owner is congested with flu-like symptoms, it is recommended to limit pampering and closeness since the infection is easily transmitted.
The ferret is considered an animal that is easily domesticated. In the market there are prizes that can be used to accustom the ferret to perform their needs in the places provided. Although you can also offer them fruit as a reward, this should be in limited quantities and as the last option, since it contains a lot of fiber.
Those who decide to have a ferret as a pet, should be very aware of the elementary care to have them at home, especially if there are children in the home. Guiding and accompanying the child in the upbringing of this pet is essential.

¿What care should be taken to raise a hamster?

When we decide to adopt a pet, it is necessary to take into account certain essential measures since we are welcoming a new life and, with it, the responsibility of its correct development and growth. On this occasion, we will share the care to raise a hamster, those small rodents that can become a great company.

Basic care for raising a hamster

First of all, you should take into consideration what type of hamster you want, since its size will be decisive when choosing your type of home. For a small hamster, cages are recommended whose bars are not separated by more than 0.5 millimeters, in order to avoid their escape. For larger ones, the opening should not exceed one centimeter in diameter.
Make sure, when you adopt or buy one, that you are completely healthy. To do this, note that your tail and legs are not wet, as this could be due to the disease of the tail, which is very common in these rodents. Also, check that there are no protuberances or spaces lacking hair, that your teeth are not bent and that your eyes are bright.
The first thing we need to raise a hamster is an adequate space for its habitat. The cage should be placed in a cool place and have good ventilation, away from extreme temperatures, to avoid developing health problems related to moisture. Also, it must be taken into account that the space must be wide enough so that the hamster does not feel locked up and must have toys and accessories necessary for it to be exercised.

The feeding of the hamster

We must give our rodent a balanced diet based on seeds, vegetables, proteins, leaves and fruits; the amount of food could vary according to the size of the hamster, although the approximate average of food they need is 7 grams a day.
To help them have their immune system in optimal conditions, it is advisable to give them fresh fruit and vegetables, especially those with low sugar and water content.
There are some foods that can be harmful to our pet, so we should prevent them from eating them. Among these foods, we can find eggplant, citrus fruits, potatoes, onions, avocado and garlic. Also, high-fat foods, chocolates and fried foods should be avoided.
Remember that to raise a hamster it is very important to provide a dispenser where you can have clean and fresh water constantly.

¿How to clean the hamster?

These small rodents in themselves are very neat and often groom themselves constantly. It is not advisable to give them a bath because a cold could be something deadly for them and if they were submerged in water they could run the risk of drowning.
The best thing we can do for cleaning the hamster is to keep its cage completely clean. The substrate should be changed at least once a week and, with the same regularity, the entire cage should be thoroughly cleaned and left to dry completely before reintroducing our hamster into it.

The process of adaptation of the hamster

When raising a hamster, it is necessary to share time with the rodent in order to know its gestures and its personality. Each hamster is different and has a particular way of behaving, so it will be necessary to interact with it and go closer little by little to get used to our presence. You must respect your space and your time of adaptation, remember that you are reaching a completely unknown place.
You can begin the approach, holding it for brief periods of time until it gets used to you; Another effective way to earn your trust is by giving seeds directly to their hands, they will take this as a gesture of protection.
It is not usually advisable to give a hamster as a gift to small children, as they can give it a rough treatment and overwhelm it.

Recommendations and guidelines for raising a hamster

You can give your pet a space of games away from his cage, that way, he will rest from the confinement in his home and will be able to enjoy new spaces, besides being able to be closer to you. You can make a play pen using materials such as cardboard boxes and plastic tubes, to create tunnels and passageways. This activity can also be used so that children can have fun watching the hamster play; In addition, you can train the hamster to search for objects inside the pen.
As we mentioned earlier, to have the hamster clean, the best thing we can do is keep your home neat; To do this, we should periodically check it and clean excess dirt so that it does not get clogged. However, despite the daily care we can give, it is necessary to do a deep cleaning of the cage at least once a week.
Before starting the deep cleaning, you must take into account the amount of materials needed to clean it to have them all at hand and that the process is less tedious. The main thing to use will be gloves, a cloth and some disinfectant or antibacterial solutions that do not have very strong odors or that are very abrasive, so as not to damage the hamster. In pet stores we can get safe cleaning solutions.
We must be careful when removing the hamster from the cage and place it in a safe place where it will not escape or may suffer an accident.
Then, you must remove all the objects from the cage, accessories, toys, containers and dispensers and place them to soak in a mixture of water with cleaning solution. Even if these objects do not look dirty, it is necessary to clean them properly. Do not forget to remove the substrate or the material you use to deposit your waste, as well as clean the cage completely.
The hamster race will determine how we can treat it; consult your veterinarian to determine the care you need to have in handling the pet and if it is convenient to have company.

Diseases in aquarium fish

When we have a pet, we must take into account the care and proper treatment that should be given to that living being that we adopt as part of our family. The fish, are perhaps, one of the alive beings that more care and dedication need; The poor diet as well as the little or poorly prepared maintenance of your aquarium, can make them suffer from different diseases.
Next, we bring you this article so that you can identify these conditions.

The 4 most frequent diseases in aquarium fish

White Point

The parasite that causes this disease very common in aquarium fish is called the External Protozoan Ichthyophthirius Multifiliis and it is so common that all fish, at least once throughout their lives, have contact with it. However, the only fish that are infected are those that suffer from poor diet, stress, live in an overpopulated aquarium or in poor quality waters. These conditions cause the fish to lower its natural defenses and be more prone to the contagion of this disease.
We can identify that our fish is infected with a white spot when we begin to notice small white spots on its skin, especially on its gills; In addition, we can notice abnormal hyperactivity in our fish as they try to swim aggressively in order to get rid of the discomfort in their skin.
The most common treatment to use is to raise the temperature of the tank to 27ºC to hasten the life of the parasite, then the recommended medications can be applied to eliminate them. The recommended antidotes are Formalin and Malachite Green, which should be applied for about a week. However, it is necessary to remember that, when dealing with drugs, it is best to follow the instructions of the veterinarian to the letter so as not to intoxicate the fish.
Also, it is very important to supplement this treatment with a good diet, in order to raise the fish’s defenses.

Tuberculosis

Yes, as you read, in the aquatic universe there is also this condition and it is very common. The main source of infection are the same fish that carry the germ, those carriers of the bacterium Mycobacterium piscium that is the cause of this disease. On the other hand, the infestation is transmitted by the swallowing of an infected material.
The main symptoms we can observe are: abnormal behavior, movements and slow movement, thinning, loss of appetite, flaking, deformation, loss of color.
Unfortunately, there is no known procedure to treat this condition, so it is necessary to take the necessary precautionary measures to prevent its spread or spread.
One of the main things we must do is to observe in detail that the fish we are going to acquire does not have any of the symptoms mentioned above. We must take special care if we are going to acquire a neon fish, since it is one of the species most prone to the spread of this disease. If we observe in our aquarium some fish with these symptoms, it is necessary to consult with the veterinarian the appropriate form in which we must act to avoid the contagion of the other fish.

Worm Lernaea

Produced by a parasite called Lernaea, which buries its head in the body of the fish remaining attached to it.
The fish carrying this microorganism behave in an unusual way, they can be observed swimming sideways or rubbing their skin against objects or materials found in the aquarium. They usually have inflammations in the epidermis from which threads will appear that will give the impression of being worms, which float upwards and have a light green color.
If this is the case, we should immediately transfer the carrier fish to another fish tank, which should be quarantined. A clamp can be used to remove the worms. In this procedure we must be careful and avoid cutting the worm because, if your head is buried in the fish, we can not eliminate it.
If you see the fish very hurt, you must apply the necessary antiseptics. In your veterinary clinic you can find Metriponate, which must be supplied with the formula of 1.5 mg per 4.5Lts of water.

Argulus or lice

Yes, our fish can also catch these unwanted beings, which have suckers that help them stick to the skin of the fish which they penetrate to feed on their blood and lay their eggs. Later, they will look for other fish to continue feeding.
We will notice the infected fish rubbing their body with the materials that are inside the aquarium to alleviate itching. Also, we can observe small stacked parasites, which have the shape of tiny white dots.
The treatment for this condition is similar to that of Lernaea; Transfer the infected fish to a quarantined fish tank and use a tweezer to eliminate these parasites. Subsequently, we should apply the Metriponate in the dose of 1.5 mg per 4.5 liters of water. Also, we must acquire some chemical to kill the larvae.

Recommendations to avoid diseases of aquarium fish

Remember to connect the filter, therefore, it is convenient to place the fish tank close to a plug. In addition, it is necessary to choose a quality filter, which provides adequate oxygenation and filtration of the water.
Normally, aquariums come equipped with adequate light, however, if you want to install your own lighting, you should check what kind of light is suitable for these spaces, since light for home can generate a lot of heat and cause accidents.
Choose the most natural algae or gravels and avoid choosing those that are very colorful because the fish usually reject it and it is not as healthy for them.
Remember to adapt the aquarium at least 10 days before introducing the first fish, so that the space is in optimal conditions.
It is important to keep the water in the tanks clean, as well as to clean excess substrate. Likewise, it is necessary to keep the filters clean.
Finally, we recommend examining your fish periodically and feeding them with natural and good quality products. If you have any doubt, do not forget to check with the veterinarian.

How is the breeding of Australian parakeets

Thanks to their intelligence, the Australian parakeets are one of the birds preferred by people to have as pets, not only because of their great color but also because of their bright and cheerful nature, which manages to fill any home with energy. Today we dedicate a few lines to these birds, in order to learn a little more about their breeding and care.

General characteristics of Australian parakeets

Hailing from the varied fauna of Australia, the Australian parakeets, also known as common parakeets, are a type of endemic bird that belongs to the family of parrots and that have adapted perfectly to other areas of the world, such as Europe and America. In these places, they are very much required as pets because of their small size and peculiar singing.
The Australian parakeets measure just between 18cm and 20cm from head to tail and their weight is only 30-35gr. In general, they are light green and have a yellow head, although it is possible to find them in multiple color combinations such as brown, light blue, white and gray.
They have a very particular type of character that is characterized by its joy and vivacity. These birds, moreover, are very intelligent and are capable of recognizing their owner and of manifesting their desire to play. That is why Australian parakeets are so required as pets, especially by the little ones.
It is precisely because of their nature that these birds must be in the company of other similar specimens, so it is essential to raise them in a habitat that includes at least one more parakeet of the same species. When they are raised alone, they usually manifest boredom and sadness, especially when the owners are away from home.
These specimens have adapted very much to domestic life, which prevents them from surviving easily in the wild, because they would not be able to provide their own food, they would have difficulties to fly properly and would be in danger when exposed to predators.
Preparing the habitat of the parakeets
A good cage, wide enough to allow them to move easily, is the best habitat for Australian parakeets. Ideally, it should be rectangular and not circular. The basic complements that the cage should have are a feeding trough, a drinking trough and a bathtub, which should be washed every three or four days. In addition, it is important to change the sprue water daily.
It is preferable that the material of the cage is stainless steel, although aluminum can also be used. The important thing is that they are easy to clean and do not represent a danger to the animal. Inside, it is preferable that the floor has a grid that prevents the parakeets from having direct contact with their stools.
The place where the cage is located should be warm, with a temperature that oscillates between 20 ° and 25 ° C. and with enough natural light. The parakeets should be protected from the air currents and with access to the sun, although always taking care that their direct exposure will generate some sunstroke problem.

Feeding the Australian parakeets

In regard to their food, it is based on the consumption of birdseed, millet and various seeds. In veterinarians and specialized centers offer balanced meals or mixtures that are composed of a mixture of seeds enriched with vitamins and minerals, providing the necessary nutrients for the proper development of the bird.
The diet of Australian parakeets should also include moist foods such as fruits and vegetables; Foods such as carrots, spinach and lettuce are ideal to strengthen the health of these birds.
Also, it is necessary to include in your diet oily seeds and prepared with minerals that help them to have an adequate digestion. The consumption of these preparations has double benefit: on the one hand, it provides them with the minerals necessary for their development; on the other hand, it helps them to crush the seeds that are contained in their crop, improving their digestion.
Foods such as chocolate, parsley and avocado are harmful to Australian parakeets and should be avoided at all costs. In addition, the consumption of other products such as bread should be properly dosed in order to avoid any problem of overweight in the animal.

Reproduction and offspring of Australian parakeets

The breeding in pairs of this type of bird allows a better control of the broodstock and their offspring. The success of reproduction is not a complicated issue, it is only a matter of having a cage sufficiently large and special for young and incorporate a nest as it serves as an incentive for procreation.
In general, the nest is made of wood with a small hole that facilitates the entry and exit of the players. In addition, it has a door that serves to check inside if necessary. It is advisable to acquire those that are installed outside the cage, since it allows better handling.
The breeding stock, on average, between two and eight eggs, in an incubation time that ends at two or three weeks. Newborn chicks are defenseless and depend on feeding directly by their parents. After the fourth week they will be able to leave the nest.
With an average lifespan of between 4 and 6 years, the Australian parakeets are ideal as pets since they do not usually give major problems in their care, being an excellent alternative for those who want to start in the breeding of birds. Following the advice given in this mini guide, it is possible to successfully breed these beautiful birds.

How to properly care for a land turtle

The turtles form an order in the chain of land reptiles. They are characterized mainly by their long life, being able to pass the 100 years of age, according to the habitat where they are. Land turtles are popularly known for feeding on a herbivorous diet, but the reality is that they are omnivorous. They also eat insects, worms and other proteins.
Of the 250 species of turtles that are known, 5 of them are the most commonly used as pets. Among them we highlight:

  • Haitian or Spanish turtle

    These are found naturally in the Caribbean area and are used to high temperatures. Its carapace is brown and yellow belly, with dark lines around the neck and tail. They do not have large size.

  • False Turtle Map

    It is characterized by having its shell closed at the edges; It is brown, green skin and yellow lines, with a very characteristic brown tone in its mouth. These turtles are found in the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, in the USA.

  • Black turtle

    They are used as pets, although a special permit is needed so that they can be in the homes. They love sunbathing, scratching and bathing. They should be outdoors and with plenty of clean water so they can cool off.

  • Red-legged turtle

These turtles come from Central America and can reach approximately 36 cm in captivity, although it varies according to their habitat. Its carapace is dark brown with the center of a yellow tone. They are red-footed or, in some cases, orange.

The correct feeding of land turtles

Land turtles feed between 2 and 3 times a week. They must have a healthy and balanced diet, without excessive fiber, depending on their habitat and size. Their diet is omnivorous, so they feed on leaves, flowers, fruits, vegetables, worms and crickets, among other insects. It is necessary that they have a space with plenty of water so that they can drink and refresh freely.
Taking into account their diet, it is important to name some of the foods that we should avoid giving to land turtles. Among them, we can find; potatoes, grains, dairy products, corn, bamboo, citrus fruits, asparagus, dates, spinach, bananas, grapes, or other food that generates a negative effect on the turtle when eating it.

Most common diseases that land turtles suffer

Like all living beings, land turtles also often suffer from certain diseases, these are some of the most common and frequent:
Inflammation in your eyes: Can be caused by contaminated water and / or poor hygiene, also due to lack of vitamins; in this case, your eyes are cleansed with physiological solution. If it does not improve, it is most likely that you have an infection so it is recommended to take it to the veterinarian of exotic species.
Piramidism: It is the deformation or bulge of its shell, this happens when the turtles do not receive frequent baths of water or direct sun. Also, it could be due to an inadequate diet. For this there is no treatment, if it is detected from the beginning will have to devote more care regarding the above.
Bite or scratch problems: Many times this usually happens if there are more than two turtles in space, or some other animal that may cause damage. In this case, we often have to supervise and check our pets. If you get any wound, you should wash the area with enough water and clean it with some antiseptic; If necessary, cover the wound with gauze or bandages.
Shell fractures: It is important to clarify that the fractures or wounds of the carapace are different, depending on their severity. The wound is disinfected carefully to observe in more detail the damage caused. The advisable thing in this case, is to take it of urgency to the veterinary clinic.
Sneezing and cough: These are infections of viral, bacterial or fungal origin that produce nasal discharge, state of sickly drowsiness, loss of appetite, excess oral mucus and even panting in turtles. It occurs due to lack of vitamins or as a result of poor hygiene in the space where the animal is.
Herpes-virus: It is the most terrible disease that land turtles suffer. It is spread by sexual contact only between turtles. It is diagnosed by observing whitish mucus, irritated eyes, pus plaques, buccal bleeding. These symptoms resemble acute stomatitis and have no cure.

Suggestions and recommendations for the care of the land turtle

If you have a land turtle as a pet, we suggest keeping it in a large place with enough vegetative terrain, abundant water and where you can sunbathe, simulating its natural habitat, taking into account the hygiene of the space.
For your turtle to have a healthy life, we recommend, among other things, vitamin supplements, calcium, phosphorus, minerals, and take it frequently to be reviewed by the veterinarian specializing in exotic animals.
If we observe that our land turtle is suffering symptoms such as diarrhea or constipation, it is best to change your diet. If you suffer from diarrhea, it can be a cause of poor digestion, so we should reduce fiber foods and excess fruit.
When you have constipation problems we must do the opposite, give a diet rich in fiber, fruits and plenty of water to achieve their improvement.
Calcium is the main element so that the shell of the land turtle grows healthy and strong, for this reason, it is very important that the turtles maintain a diet rich in this and other minerals. Nor can it be overlooked that turtles that live in captivity or as pets in enclosed spaces, should be exposed to the sun at least 15 minutes a day, as sunlight intervenes in the fixation of calcium.
It is important to note that, like all reptiles, the land turtle is a carrier of salmonella, easily transmitted to humans. Therefore, we must maintain a correct hygiene, and thus avoid contagion.
The general health of land turtles is related to the frequency of interaction with their natural environment, that is, if they sunbathe and bathe in water. Turtles are reptiles that have the shell as their best defense, protect it through a good diet and minimum exposure to the sun will guarantee a long and healthy life.

Rabbits paralytic ileus

Paralytic ileus is a common digestive disease in rabbits. Also known as gastrointestinal stasis, it manifests with a decrease in bowel peristalsis, that is, paralysis of bowel movements.
One of its causes may be due to the presence of a foreign object (cloth, plastic, hair, etc.) that has become stuck. Another, when the animal stops eating due to stress or when it is fed an inadequate diet, which makes it difficult for the digestion process to be carried out correctly.

Symptoms of paralytic ileus

If a rabbit is suffering from paralytic ileus, it can manifest in several ways:

  • Reduction or loss of appetite.
  • Decrease in stool secretion.
  • Decayed behavior.
  • Impossibility to walk.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Grinding teeth or bruxism to express pain.
  • Strong breathing

The veterinarian must be taken to the veterinarian to diagnose accurately, through X-rays and measuring the level of glucose in the blood, if the intestines are clogged or is another cause of the pathology.

Treatment of paralytic ileus in rabbits

To improve the intestinal health of the rabbit, the treatment consists in the ingestion of analgesics to calm the pain, as well as the application of fluid therapy, in order to balance the volumes of internal fluids.
Touch stimulation is a practice that is done to the animal and consists of a series of constant massages to stimulate the stool evacuation process.
In the most severe cases, where the obstruction is persistent after having performed the treatments recommended by the veterinarian, the surgical intervention of the rabbit is the only treatment to end his ailment.
Antibiotics such as enrofloxacin, sulfonamides and metronidazole are the most recommended by specialists. With the supply of them, the propagation of secondary bacteria to the intestinal stasis picture is avoided.
This pathology favors the appearance of gastric ulcers and one way to avoid it is by providing gastric protectors such as ranitidine 3-5 mg / kg, sucralfate 25 mg / kg or cimetidine 5-10 mg / kg.
If an obstruction is ruled out, it is viable to stimulate intestinal mobility with drugs such as prokinetics.

Adequate diet to attack the paralytic ileus at the roots

It is important to keep the rabbit hydrated and with a balanced diet, rich in essential fibers, for the optimal functioning of your body. Hay is essential since it must mean 80% of the diet. The rest is complemented with fresh vegetables and controlled portions of always raw fruits.
This food is very important because its lack is causing diseases such as paralytic ileus or degeneration of the teeth. It constitutes the main source of fibers to maintain the health of rabbits in optimal conditions.
In the case of processed foods, we must take special care that they do not become their usual diet. That is, dog and cat foods are not recommended because they are high in carbohydrates and harmful components, such as preservatives and chemicals, that affect the balance of nutrients.
Keep in mind that nuts, legumes and cereals, iceberg lettuce, cauliflower, meat, dairy, and fruit in syrup are harmful to your health.

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