Category: Health

Possible complications after neutering your dog

Spaying a dog has many benefits, and most of us agree on that. Either spaying a female dog or neutering a male dog, it is a procedure recommended by veterinarians as it helps reduce litter abandonment, prevents certain diseases, and also reduces the risk of behavioral problems.

You should know that the complications of the procedures are not normal, they rarely happen. However, when dealing with surgical interventions, there can always be risks that must be taken into account.

That is why in this blog post we will provide you with more information about the possible complications after neutering a dog.

Possible complications after neutering a dog

Again, we want to emphasize that the likelihood of having complications from spaying or neutering a dog is minimal when we take the proper protective precautions and the intervention is carried out by professional veterinarians. What’s more, it is considered minor surgery. However, we must still be vigilant in case any of the following problems arise:

  • Bruising, irritation and swelling: that the site of the incision of the castration or sterilization is swollen, reddened or may have some scabs does not have to be a bad thing a priori. But you should keep in mind that it is a wound that should heal relatively quickly. In male dogs, it may even appear that they still have testicles in the scrotum, but this is due to the swelling and goes away after a few days. This means that it is not a postoperative complication of castration. However, if the swelling becomes too acute or there are purulent discharge, you should return to the vet as soon as possible.
  • Vomiting and diarrhea: due to general anesthesia, your dog will become slightly dizzy and his metabolism will be somewhat altered. This can manifest itself in vomiting and diarrhea that can be normal. However, you should control them since, if it continues for more than 24 hours, it is necessary to return to the vet.
  • Ovarian remnants: In some bitches, some ovarian tissue may remain after spay surgery. This can lead to hormonal problems, infections, or other complications. That is why, on very rare occasions, even neutered dogs can contract diseases such as pyometra.
  • Risk of infection: the risk of your dog suffering an internal infection is minimal, but we should always look for signs in case the dog’s belly swells and becomes hard. Also, since the incision site will likely bother the dog, it will always try to lick the wound area. For this reason, we need to put an Elizabethan collar around his neck, or cover that area by adjusting an old shirt to prevent this from happening, since bacteria from his mouth can infect the wound or remove the stitches.
  • Poorly healed wound: Similarly, if the dog licks the incision or hits something, the wound may not heal properly. In these cases, we must take them to the vet as soon as possible. Medicating them ourselves could make the situation worse.
  • Death: this is the risk that anyone who has a dog fears the most. Putting a dog under general anesthesia can be scary, but problems rarely arise from it. Now, it is important to say that there are cases in which an adverse reaction to anesthesia can occur that unfortunately causes death. However, it should be noted that multiple studies have been able to show that the mortality rate due to spaying or neutering in dogs is practically nil, with 0.03%.

Hypothermia in dogs. What to do?

How does the cold affect dogs? As the person responsible for your furry friend, you always want to protect him from any danger. Low temperatures can seriously harm the health of dogs. Although some dogs are better protected from the cold than others, such as the Siberian husky or Saint Bernard, the cold affects any breed. We must be very careful with some breeds, dogs with short fur and vulnerable animals.

Exposure to cold, snow, wind, or heavy rain can increase your chances of catching a common cold. However, when the exposure is long enough and the temperature low enough, hypothermia can develop. This presents a life-threatening situation for your dog, so read on to learn more about the symptoms and how to act.

What is hypothermia in dogs?

Hypothermia is a complex clinical picture, but it can be characterized as a significant decrease in body temperature. It can happen to many different animals, not just mammals. Each animal will have a different body temperature, but once it falls below a certain point, the dog will become hypothermic. Basically, more heat leaves the body than can be absorbed, something that happens at very low temperatures.

The core body temperature of a dog is usually between 38ºC and 39.2ºC. When it falls below this temperature, hypothermia begins. There may be a small margin of error, especially depending on the method of taking the dog’s temperature. However, when the body temperature of a dog drops to 36ºC, we must be attentive to the appearance of any other symptoms, since this would mean that our dog needs to go to the vet immediately.

Symptoms of hypothermia in dogs

In general, the first symptoms of hypothermia in dogs begin similar to a dog experiencing cold temperatures. In mild to moderate cases of hypothermia in dogs, symptoms can include:

  • Tremors
  • Muscular stiffness.
  • Difficult breathing
  • Dry Skin.
  • Slow movements
  • Clumsiness and lethargy.
  • Drowsiness.

If hypothermia is not treated quickly and properly, the dog’s clinical picture may worsen. This will likely lead to the following symptoms:

  • Low blood pressure.
  • Decreased heart rate.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Disorientation.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sudden death.

How to treat hypothermia in dogs?

If you suspect that your dog has been exposed to the cold and you observe any of the symptoms mentioned above, it is essential that you go to the vet urgently. Severe hypothermia can cause irreversible damage to the body, even leading to death in acute cases.

As a dog’s body temperature drops, there is a drop in both blood pressure and heart rate. This can lead to arrhythmias. In people, ventricular arrhythmias are recognized as the leading cause of a high mortality rate in accidentally hypothermic patients. Similarly, exposure to cold can cause the heart to stop beating in dogs. The dog may also experience a decrease in oxygen in the blood, a stoppage of its metabolism and, occasionally, hypothermia can lead to complete multiple organ failure.

To treat hypothermia, a specialist will need to provide the right environment for the dog to return to a stable temperature. However, this will have to be done gradually, as putting too much temperature on the dog can also cause his body to go into shock.

The dog should not move too much to avoid further loss of heat and to prevent it from becoming weak. Warming the animal can be done with hot air, heating pillows, infrared lamps, or just some blankets.

If the case is acute hypothermia, you may need additional treatment. This could include intravenous fluid therapy to help your blood volume, as well as to be used as a means of raising your body temperature.

For the latter purpose, enemas can also be administered. The dog can also receive oxygen to help it breathe and ensure that enough oxygen reaches its blood.

First aid for hypothermia in dogs

If you observe several of the symptoms of hypothermia in a dog, we insist, you must go immediately to the veterinary clinic or hospital. However, everything you do on the way to the vet can help improve his condition. That is why you should know some first aid tips for hypothermic dogs:

  1. Dry the dog immediately: in case the dog has fallen into very cold water or is wet from rain, snow, etc., we should try to clean it immediately with a dry towel. Humidity favors the development of hypothermia in dogs when combined with very low temperatures.
  2. Provision of shelter and heat: when the dog has already dried properly, we must provide it with heat to try to regain its balance from its loss of temperature. This can be done by wrapping them in another dry towel, a blanket, a coat, or some special dog clothing. We can also hug him to transfer some of our body temperature. This provides constant heat, but not rapid.
  3. Balance blood glucose levels: To avoid a decrease in body temperature, the body needs to burn its energy reserves. That is, speed up the metabolism of glucose in the bloodstream to try to stay stable. As a result, the dog can suffer a sudden case of hypoglycemia, which means a drastic reduction in blood glucose levels. This can lead to fainting, lethargy, and even lead to a coma. If we identify the symptoms of hypoglycemic shock, we can offer them a teaspoon of honey to quickly replenish their blood sugar levels. However, honey should be avoided in puppies.
  4. Check your body: Exposure to extreme cold and hypothermia can cause injuries or burns associated with freezing temperatures. It is recommended to gently check the dog’s body for signs of injury. In particular, attention should be paid to areas with low concentration of hair such as the feet, ears, legs, muzzle, anus, tail and genitals. If you identify an injury, it is essential to go quickly to the vet.

We must emphasize the importance of recognizing that these measures are first aid to help give the dog the best chance of recovery. They will help keep the dog safe and combat the appearance of any associated health problems. However, we still have to take him to the vet for a proper examination.

How to prevent hypothermia in dogs

To prevent hypothermia in dogs, it is essential that we provide adequate care during the winter. We need to make sure that they are not left outside when temperatures are too low, offer them shelter in humid conditions, and always with additional protection if they need it (in the form of dog clothes, blankets, etc.). We can also provide a proper diet, preventive medications and maintain exercise, as it will help give them a chance to fight, with their fitness, if they develop hypothermia.

How and when to clean the ears of our dogs

Cleaning a dog’s ears is something that should be done regularly, be it a puppy or an adult dog. Periodic cleaning of the ears is very important to avoid the appearance of fungi and related diseases.

Here we explain when to wash your dog’s ears, the utensils you need to carry it out and the methods to do it, ensuring that everything goes perfectly.

Cleaning the ears of our dogs

First of all, to know when you should clean the inside of your dog’s ears, it is important to carry out a review at least weekly. Depending on the breed and the shape of your dog’s ears, he probably needs more continuous hygiene. Here are the steps to follow:

1. The first step is to get all the materials that may be necessary to properly clean the dog’s ears:

  • Sterile gauze.
  • Cotton swabs.
  • Saline solution (physiological serum)

Instead of saline solution, you can also opt for specific products that are marketed to clean the ears of pets. It is recommended to sterilize the gauze before application, because the cotton can fray inside the dog’s ear and break down.

Finally, for a much more thorough cleaning, you will need some cotton swabs. Yes, the same ones that are used in babies. They are much safer.

2. It is important to bear in mind that little by little you should get your dog used to this routine, so if you start as a puppy, the better. However, if you have decided to adopt an adult dog, you should still work gradually so that the process does not scare him away.
Always use positive reinforcement when your dog is still and allows you to manipulate him. This is a great way to distract them and reward their good attitude right now.

3. Begin cleaning by brushing aside the hair that is blocking the ear. In principle, if you regularly take care of your dog’s hygiene, it shouldn’t be too dirty.

The second step is to wet the gauze with the chosen product. It is advisable to apply some type of specially designed product, as it will facilitate the cleaning of the ear and will not irritate your pet’s skin. Start by cleaning the outer folds around the ear where dirt tends to collect.

4. Once the outside of the ear is clean, we recommend replacing the gauze and using a new one to clean the inside. Dampen the gauze again and little by little insert your fingers into the dog’s ear, without going too far. If you have a puppy, you should not stick your finger in more than one centimeter.

Slowly massage the inside of the ear with the gauze, taking care that your dog does not move. If you do not know the dog, it is especially important that you do it step by step. Also, doing it slowly will give you a better chance to study the ear.

5. Finally, use a cotton swab for children (which is thicker than normal ones) to finish cleaning the areas where our fingers cannot reach. It is important to do this part of the job carefully, especially if your dog is nervous, because you could cause damage to the ear.

6. Once the process is complete, all you need to do is massage the outside of the dog’s ear to calm him down and give him a reward for enduring the experience.

Remember that if you do not see yourself prepared to do this task, or you have doubts about how to do it correctly, it is better that you go to a trusted veterinarian and ask for help.

A visit to the specialist will also be essential if you notice particularly dark dirt or a bad smell, as it could be a disease.

Remember: caring for a dog in all aspects of daily hygiene is essential to prevent future health problems.

Ectropion in dogs: causes and treatment

Ectropion is a canine disease in which the eyelid moves outward, unlike entropion in dogs, exposing the inside of the eyelid. With the inner eyelid exposed, the dog can be prone to eye problems of various kinds, and even runs the risk of losing sight.

This disease has different possible causes. One of the primary or direct causes is simply improper development of the dog from birth, while secondary or indirect causes may include previous diseases of the animal. In this article we will talk about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ectropion in dogs.

Symptoms of ectropion in dogs

The symptoms of ocular ectropion are very obvious and easy to detect. These include:

  • Lower eyelids drooping and eyeball separation, allowing you to see the conjunctiva (transparent mucous membrane that lines the eyeball from the limbus to the conjunctival cul-de-sac) and the third eyelid.
  • Red or swollen conjunctiva.
  • Marks on the face, caused by the flow of tears that do not cross the tear ducts.
  • Inflammation of the eye.
  • Recurrent bacterial eye infections.
  • Recurrent irritation of the eye caused by foreign objects.

Causes and risk factors

Canine ectropion is known as “primary” when it is caused by poor development of the dog, with a well-known genetic predisposition.

On the other hand, it is considered “secondary” when it is the result of other factors. In this case, it is usually due to trauma, inflammation, foreign bodies, infections, corneal ulceration, paralysis of the facial nerves, rapid and noticeable weight loss, and loss of muscle tone around the eyes. Dogs with hypothyroidism can also suffer from ectropion as a result of myxedema and facial paralysis.

Primary ectropion generally occurs in puppies and is more common in larger breeds, or those with very loose skin and folds, such as the Saint Bernard, Great Dane, Bloodhound, Bullmastiff, Newfoundland, Shar-peis, and some Spaniels and Retrievers. Secondary ectropion, on the other hand, is more common in older dogs.

How is ectropion diagnosed?

Canine ectropion can usually be diagnosed simply by observing and examining the pet. The breed and medical history of the dog help to identify the probable causes, which is very important to know in order to request other complementary studies.

Once ectropion has been diagnosed in dogs, the veterinarian will be able to perform a complete eye exam on the animal to identify probable causes and decide what is the best treatment for the condition.

Ectropion treatments

The treatment of this disease is usually very simple when it comes to mild cases. Once diagnosed, a prescription for eye drops or other lubricants is administered to help keep the eyeball moist, which in such cases, it is essential to keep hydrated so that other complications do not appear. Antibiotics are also given for secondary infections.

If the ectropion is caused by another disease, such as hypothyroidism, it should be treated in the same way. Treatment of severe cases of ectropion requires surgery. Whatever the case, the prognosis is positive.

But, in a large percentage of cases, dogs with ectropion will manifest eye problems or a very pronounced eversion. For this reason, it will be more than necessary to do everything possible to try to repair the defect through surgery. The operation, which of course has to be carried out by a veterinary professional, consists of creating a tension in the eyelids.

It is a simple procedure, but it must always be carried out by an ophthalmologist veterinarian or, at least, with ophthalmological experience. This consists of removing a small part of the tissue from the lower eyelid and joining the resulting edges to tighten the area. In this way, the eyelid skin becomes tight again, correcting the defect.

Ectropion vs entropion: what’s the difference?

Due to the similarity of both terms, and since both refer to eye disorders, it is not uncommon for confusion to occur between ectropion and entropion disease. But they are easy conditions to distinguish if you look at the words. Thus, if the ectropion is eversion of the lower eyelid, entropion consists of invagination of the lid margin.

Invaginate refers to the edge of the eyelids turning towards the inside, which can cause damage to the eyeball itself. It can be a very common congenital defect in breeds such as the Chow chow and can even affect both eyelids. It is an ailment that requires surgical intervention.

How to prevent ectropion in dogs

To prevent canine ectropion it is important to maintain a regular hygiene in the dog’s healthy eyes. In this way, you will avoid minor illnesses that can develop into bigger problems. Another recommendation is to avoid breeding with dogs that already have this disease.


What is brucellosis in dogs? Symptoms, treatment and prevention

Brucellosis in dogs is a bacterial disease. This pathology is serious since it is capable of causing other health problems, such as sterility or abortion in our dogs.

In this article we will explain what brucellosis in dogs is, as well as its symptoms and treatment. Finally, we will include how to prevent brucellosis in dogs. Read on to learn more!

What is canine brucellosis?

Canine brucellosis is a disease caused by a bacterium called brucella canis that damages the reproductive system and can cause the animal to suffer a spontaneous abortion, sterility, an infection in its reproductive system, or develop a sexually transmitted disease.

It is also possible that male or female dogs suffer from this disease and remain asymptomatic. In fact, this pathology does not affect females that suffer from it and, unfortunately, it is very contagious among dogs.

Below, we’ll explain the symptoms of brucellosis in dogs so you know when it’s time to call your vet to properly diagnose and treat your dog.

Symptoms of canine brucellosis

One of the most common symptoms of brucellosis in dogs is spontaneous abortion. Pregnant bitches suffer a spontaneous abortion, their unborn puppies are usually aborted about two weeks before the probable date of delivery, although they can also be born dead on the date or be born alive but get sick and die. If this happens to your dog, brucellosis must be one of the conditions that your vet should consider.

If the dog is suffering from an ongoing infection due to brucellosis, it is possible to detect enlarged lymph nodes, which are located in the groin or under the jaw. In males, their testicles can also become inflamed early in the disease, but as the disease progresses, they atrophy due to destruction of sperm, resulting in a reduction in size.

The diagnosis can be determined by a blood test or an abortive tissue removal. This test can also tell us if the dog has been infected at some point in its life. The vet will determine if your dog needs other tests for a more accurate diagnosis.

Treatment of canine brucellosis

Once your dog has been correctly diagnosed by the vet, he will also determine the best treatment for him. This will likely include intramuscular and oral antibiotics for about three weeks. Unfortunately, this will not kill the bacteria in all infected dogs. For this reason, its eradication is considered difficult.

Prevention of canine brucellosis

What can you do to prevent canine brucellosis in your dog or bitch? These are some of the actions you can take to avoid the disease in your pet:

  • The sterilization of the dog (either male or female).
  • Avoid large dog communities, where contagion can be easy.
  • Do not acquire dogs of unknown origin.
  • Keep your pet up to date with veterinary checkups and vaccinations.

How to know if your cat’s tail is broken and what to do?

Do you think your cat has broken its tail? If you notice that he is in pain and his tail seems floppy, you are understandably concerned.

In this article we will help you know if your cat has a broken or injured tail, and what to do to help it. We will discuss the symptoms, causes, anatomy of the tail, what to do, and treatment. Read on to learn more.

How to tell if your cat’s tail is broken or injured

Whether or not you witnessed the injury, there are different ways to tell if your cat has injured its tail or even broken its tail. The most common symptoms include:

  • Lack of tail movement.
  • Bleeding
  • Puffy tail.
  • Loss of hair.
  • Difficulty controlling bowel movements.
  • Your cat is hiding, crying, or aggressive.

This way, you can recognize when your cat is in pain and you can act quickly before it becomes too serious.

The cause of an injured or broken tail is always injury. Perhaps your cat was out exploring when an accident occurred where it fell or something fell on its tail. When a cat hurts its tail, it can fracture, break, or even dislocate. Minor injuries can include scrapes, hair loss, swelling, or some bleeding. Major injuries can include nerve damage, blood vessel damage, broken bones, etc.

With that said, the most common cat tail injury is a fractured tail, as it can be caused by a wide variety of accidents. Fractured cat tails near the base are more serious as they can also involve damage to the nerves or blood vessels, making it a more serious and painful injury. Fractured cattails near the tip are less painful and often less severe.

Nerve damage in a cat’s tail injury is usually indicated by a floppy tail, lack of tail movement, and difficulty defecating. They will likely cry, hide, be aggressive, or freeze due to pain.

Anatomy of a cat’s tail

The tail of a cat is made up of about 22 caudal or coccygeal vertebrae, which are small rectangular-shaped bones that decrease in size from base to tip. The feline tail is a continuation of its spine. The sacrum around the hip separates the lumbar vertebrae from the tail vertebrae.

The spine of cats is more flexible than that of dogs, especially around the tail area, which allows them a lot of mobility and flexibility, as well as serving as an axis of rotation when they fall to readjust their posture and intervenes in the center of its stability.

What to do if your cat hurts its tail

Help your cat stay calm

The first thing you want to do is help your cat stay calm. He may be scared and in pain, so it is your responsibility to help him overcome this problem as well as possible. To help her calm down, you can make sure she rests in a comfortable and cozy place, perhaps on her bed, box, or cat carrier.

Leave a bowl of cool water near him, talk to him in a low voice, and pat his head so he can try to calm down. Make sure there are no other stressful triggers around him, like loud sounds, other pets or people, etc.

Look at the wound

Now that your cat is a little calmer, you can visually observe the tail. Is it flabby, swollen, or bleeding? Try to observe any other abnormal behavior in your cat. Are they crying or hiding? You should take all of this into account when you call your vet and tell him what happened, as well as the symptoms that your cat has. Avoid touching the tail, as it may cause more pain or damage the animal’s injury. If you must touch the tail, do so very carefully.

Call a vet

Now you should call your vet. Even if your cat suffers from one of the symptoms mentioned above that raises suspicion of a minor injury, it is enough to call a vet. We should never wait to contact a professional when our cat is behaving abnormally or is in pain as it could cause greater damage and make your cat suffer for longer.

It is best to take them to the vet as soon as possible so that they are properly diagnosed and treated. Your vet will ask about the symptoms and then ask you to bring the cat to the clinic.

How to treat an injured or broken cat tail?

Each injury will be different, therefore, it is the veterinarian who must diagnose the injury and find the appropriate treatment for your pet’s condition. Let’s take a look at some treatment possibilities for a fractured cat tail.

Minor injuries to the cat’s tail

For most fractured tails, the tail will heal naturally, but over time. This implies that it was a clean break that did not affect any nerves or blood vessels. In these cases, the vet will simply make sure it is healing properly and provide your cat with pain relievers to help ease the pain.

Serious cat tail injuries

In severe cat tail injuries, the bone has been broken beyond repair or the injury has damaged the animal’s nervous system or blood vessels. In these cases, where the tail cannot heal on its own, the vet may need to dock the tail. They may also need surgery to repair any nerve damage. If this is the case, your vet will provide you with more information.

Fortunately, most cats recover very well from this procedure and adapt quickly to their shorter tails. They will be jumping and playing again in no time. Talk to your vet about the procedure and ask about the recovery time as it will depend on your cat’s injury.

The most important thing to do when your cat suffers a tail injury or is experiencing symptoms of an injured tail is to see the vet as soon as possible. The faster you go to the vet and treat the injury, the faster your cat will heal and recover from its unfortunate mishap.

5 signs that a rabbit is sick

Until not long ago rabbits were seen only as farm or wild animals, but not as companion animals. However, during the last thirty years more and more people have been encouraged to care for these lovely lagomorphs in the warmth of their homes. For this reason, more and more veterinary clinics provide specific care for rabbits. This can treat rabbit diseases and help ensure that they are better prevented. Knowing if a rabbit is sick is one of the fundamental issues to prevent serious health complications.

In this article we will talk about the 5 signs that can indicate the disease of a rabbit.

1. Lack of appetite

When a rabbit is not interested in food, its manager should be concerned. Problems may only be temporary, and your appetite may return in a short time. This could happen because of a mild digestive problem or even short periods of stress. However, if the rabbit does not regain its appetite after 24 hours, it is best to take it to the vet.

Although the lack of appetite is usually associated with digestive problems, it is also possible that other pathologies can generate this symptom. Since rabbits spend a large part of the day eating, it should be noticed pretty soon if they lose their appetite.

2. Diarrhea

Rabbits have very specific stools. If the rabbit has diarrhea, it means there is a serious problem. This problem can be fatal if the diarrhea occurs for a long time. Although it may only mean that the rabbit has digestive problems, diarrhea is a symptom of illness that in rabbits can be linked to many other serious problems.

3. Weight loss

Although it can be associated with almost any disease in rabbits, weight loss is a sign that deserves concern, since for some reason, even eating normally, the nutrients you eat are not going where they should.

4. Difficulty eating

Some rabbits don’t necessarily lose their appetite, but they have trouble eating. In these cases, the rabbit looks for food and tries to eat it. However, they cannot chew or swallow. One of the biggest problems related to this symptom of the disease is teething (the development of your teeth). Since a rabbit’s teeth never stop growing, they can grow abnormally and cause serious health problems. However, if the rabbit is unable to swallow, it could be related to other problems such as a sore throat.

5. Red or irritated eyes

Rabbits who are not properly cared for by their keeper or who have hygiene problems in their environment will likely develop eye problems. One of the most common is conjunctivitis, which causes redness and swelling of the eyes. This is common in poorly groomed rabbits. For example, if your hutch is not cleaned regularly, bacteria are spread, which can lead to different health problems for the animal.

Entropion in dogs: causes and treatment

Entropion in dogs is an anomaly found in the eyelids of our furry companions, in which they move inward, causing pain and other health problems.

In this article we are going to know what entropion is, what are the causes, symptoms, treatment and possible forms of prevention.

What is entropion in dogs?

Entropion in dogs is an abnormality in which the animal’s eyelids are turned towards the inside of the eye. This causes the hair on the surface of the eyelid to rub against the cornea of ​​the eye and cause pain, corneal ulcers, perforations or even the development of pigment in the cornea that can interfere with your vision.

This abnormality can occur with the upper eyelid, the lower eyelid, or both eyelids, although it is much more common in the lower eyelid. It is also very common for it to happen in both eyes, although it can also occur in only one. As a consequence of the friction of the eyelashes against the eyeball, friction, irritation, discomfort and pain occur. If not treated in time, this condition can cause serious damage to the eyes.

Entropion in dogs should not be confused with ectropion, since they are also opposite symptoms: in ectropion, the dog’s eyelids turn outward.

Causes of entropion in dogs

There are two different types of entropion in dogs, depending on the symptoms it causes, it can be primary entropion or secondary entropion:

  • Primary entropion: can occur as a result of a defect during the dog’s development, or as a result of congenital defects.
  • Secondary entropion: It is due to environmental causes or other health problems.

Primary entropion

Primary entropion is most commonly detected in puppies and young dogs. It has a very important genetic component, so it is more common to find it in certain breeds. It is especially found in breeds that have flat faces and flattened noses, or those with wrinkled faces. Thus, the breeds with the highest probability of suffering from this disease are:

  • Chow chow.
  • Shar pei.
  • Boxer.
  • Rottweiler.
  • Doberman.
  • Labrador.
  • Cocker.
  • Springer Spaniel.
  • Irish Setter.
  • Bull terrier
  • Border Collie.
  • Hound.
  • Maltese Bichon.
  • Pekingese.
  • Bulldog
  • Pug.
  • English Mastiff.
  • Bullmastiff.
  • Saint Bernard.
  • Pyrenean mountain dog.
  • Great dane
  • Newfoundland.

Secondary entropion

Secondary entropion occurs more frequently in older dogs and can affect all breeds of dogs. This type of entropion usually occurs as a result of another disease or environmental factors that harm the dog’s health.

The most common causes of secondary entropion in dogs are:

  • Blepharospasm (twitching of the eyelids).
  • Eye or eyelid trauma.
  • Chronic inflamation.
  • Obesity.
  • Eye infections
  • Rapid and marked weight loss.
  • Loss of muscle around the eye area.
  • Main symptoms of entropion in dogs

The most common symptoms of entropion in dogs are the following:

  • Watery eyes and excessive tearing.
  • Eye discharge, which may contain blood or pus.
  • Eyelid visibly rolled inward.
  • Eye irritation.
  • Thickened skin around the eyes.
  • The dog keeps his eyes half open.
  • Blepharospasm
  • Difficulty opening your eyes.
  • Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea).
  • Corneal ulcers.
  • Loss of vision (in advanced cases).
  • He constantly rubs his eyes, causing more damage.
  • Lethargy.
  • Aggression for pain.
  • Sadness and depression.

If you see that your dog exhibits any of these symptoms, or any other abnormal behavior, it is important that you take him to the vet for proper diagnosis and treatment before the disease becomes too serious to treat.


Entropion in dogs is easy to diagnose, although it can only be detected by clinical auscultation by a professional veterinarian. In any case, the vet will perform a complete eye exam to rule out other associated complications and problems similar to entropion, such as distichiasis or blepharospasm. If deemed necessary, other tests may be ordered for any other abnormalities or complications they find.

Treatment for entropion in dogs

The only treatment to solve this eye problem is through surgery. Surgery in puppies with entropion poses an additional problem, as the disease can continue to develop later. For this reason, in cases of entropion in puppies, the veterinarian may temporarily opt for other regular procedures until the dog reaches an age when he is ready for the appropriate surgery. The prognosis for dogs operated on entropion is excellent, so if your dog needs surgery, you are guaranteed success.

What is entropion surgery in dogs?

Entropion surgery involves removing a section of skin from the affected eye to reverse its inward curl. In many cases, this surgery can be done in two parts: a primary major surgery correction and then a minor corrective surgery.

Your dog will heal completely about two weeks after surgery. Talk to your vet about this procedure and don’t hesitate to ask any questions or concerns you may have.

Can entropion in dogs be prevented?

Unfortunately, entropion in dogs cannot always be prevented. The only thing you can do is try to detect it in time, so that the symptoms do not get worse and the recovery is as favorable as possible.

If your dog belongs to one of the breeds that have a high propensity to suffer from this eye disease, you should pay special attention to his eye care. Make sure to keep them clean and take them regularly to the vet for checkups.

Poinsettia at Christmas: is it toxic to cats and dogs?

The Christmas season brings us many good times and surely decorating the home is one of the most rewarding. However, when we live with animals, decorations can cause some problems. Since dogs love to play, it can be easy for them to mistake tree decorations for their own toys. However, ruining the festive home decor isn’t the only problem caused by the holidays. The poinsettia or poinsettia is a very popular seasonal plant at Christmas, but it is said that it can be harmful to dogs and cats.

In this article we will explain if this statement is true and what happens when a dog or cat ingests a poinsettia leaf.

What is the poinsettia

The poinsettia, or poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) according to its scientific name, is a plant associated with Christmas, in particular due to its red leaves that contrast with its green stem. Although popular as a potted plant around the holidays, it is actually a small tree and can grow to a height of over 10 feet.

Poinsettia plants are native to Central America and it is here that they were first associated with the celebration of Christmas within Christian religious communities. Millions of these plants are grown each year, but they aren’t just for Christmas. Although many people only care for them during those dates, they are perennials and can be kept throughout the year.

However, poinsettia leaves only appear for a shorter period in the winter. That is why they are also associated with Christmas dates.

Are poinsettias poisonous to cats and dogs?

The history of the poinsettia has led to a lot of misinformation about this plant. An urban legend that changes according to the country where it is told, reported that a child died from ingesting a leaf of the poinsettia. From stories of this type, the belief that this plant could be lethal to our pets spread.

The plant itself is toxic to cats and dogs, but they are not lethal. If our pet only ingested a bite of the plant, the adverse reaction is more than unlikely.

There are two main ways that poinsettia leaves can cause harm to our dog or cat. Ingesting poinsettia leaves can leak the sap into your mouth when you chew. This can irritate the mouth and gums, but also the stomach and esophagus, which can lead to vomiting.

The animal can see its skin affected, especially if it comes into contact with its eyes. Since cats and dogs are curious, you may smell the leaves and stain your skin with sap. Symptoms are usually mild and a serious reaction is unlikely, but we must be careful anyway.

What are the symptoms of poinsettia toxicity in dogs?

Although it is not lethal for dogs and cats, it is possible that they have an adverse reaction. This will depend on the amount ingested or the amount of sap that has come into contact with the animal’s skin. Also, if the sap comes into contact with sensitive areas of the body, the symptoms may be more acute. They include:

  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Hypersalivation.
  • Fatigue.
  • Tremors.
  • Irritation of the skin.
  • Itching.
  • Blisters (when the amount ingested is high).
  • Dehydration.

What to do if your cat or dog ate poinsettia

If you suspect or know for sure that your pet ate poinsettia leaves, we must be careful. The animal can suffer a slight poisoning, but it can be complicated if it suffers an allergic reaction. Although both situations are concerning, they affect the dog in different ways. In a severe allergic reaction, your pet can go into anaphylactic shock.

The first thing to do is keep calm. If you panic, you will hamper your ability to help him and you can also cause the animal to panic. Try to find out if the plant is actually causing the problem. If you have a severe reaction, it is unlikely. When fallen leaves or plant parts have bite marks, it is more likely.

If you are sure that your pet has eaten poinsettia leaves, you should do the following:

  • Allow the animal to vomit when possible. Since ingestion of the plant is causing the symptoms, we should let them vomit the material when possible. Making them vomit is only recommended if it is an emergency, as doing so can cause more damage. A veterinarian can induce vomiting clinically.
  • If your pet’s skin or eyes have been exposed to poinsettia sap, you should wash the area with plenty of fresh water. Consult your vet to see if he needs any additional medications.
  • To combat dehydration, provide your pet with water to drink and never give her medication on your own. Only the veterinary professional can determine which medications are the most appropriate.

Before the treatment, the veterinarian should evaluate the function of the kidneys of your dog or cat to rule out possible complications. You will need to inform the vet of her medical history, as well as the circumstances that led to the poisoning. The faster you act, the better the prognosis.

Christmas plants and pets: safer alternatives

There are other plants that can replace the famous Easter plant, being just as Christmas. For example:


These tropical plants thrive indoors and are easy to care for. Green leaves and brightly colored flowers are a great alternative to holly or poinsettia. Fortunately, blush bromeliads (Neoregalia spp.) Are not poisonous to cats or dogs.


Red and white roses are a festive and safe alternative to the poinsettia that your pets will not be tempted to ingest, and if they did, they would not suffer any poisoning.


During the winter holidays, many stores sell rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) topiaries that look like miniature Christmas trees, some with little decorations. If you are concerned about your pet playing with a pine or fir (which can also be toxic), rosemary trees are a wonderful and elegant alternative.

Causes of pancreatitis in cats

Feline pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases in cats and one of the most often overlooked in these animals. This is because in general it does not develop in an acute way, but chronic, which makes it difficult to recognize any symptoms.

In this article we are going to explain what is pancreatitis in cats, what are its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Read on to learn more about this feline disease.

What is pancreatitis in cats?

Pancreatitis in cats is inflammation of the pancreas, a gland that is located near the small intestine (in fact, it is partially attached to it) and that fulfills several functions in the body of both animals and humans.

On the one hand, it has an endocrine job, producing hormones like insulin. On the other hand, it has an exocrine function, which is why it is responsible for manufacturing substances that help digest food. The diagnosis can become fatal when the cat’s pancreas begins to digest its own tissue.

Causes of pancreatitis in cats

Unfortunately, the exact cause of feline pancreatitis is unknown. However, there are certain health problems associated with pancreatitis in cats. They are as follows:

  • Ingesting poison.
  • Parasitic infection.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Cholangiohepatitis (liver disease).
  • Too much fat in your diet.

Therefore, if your cat has too much fat in its diet or if it suffers from any of the health problems mentioned above, it is at risk of pancreatitis disease.

Symptoms of Pancreatitis in Cats

The symptoms of pancreatitis in cats are not usually acute and can go unnoticed, so we emphasize that if you ever see your cat experiencing any abnormal behavior, it is best to take him to the vet for a check-up. That being said, the most common symptoms of pancreatitis in cats are:

  • Lethargy.
  • Dehydration
  • Increased thirst.
  • Increased urination
  • Poor appetite
  • Weightloss.
  • Diarrhea and vomiting.

Diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats

To diagnose pancreatitis in cats, the aforementioned symptoms must be examined and recognized by a veterinarian. As the owner of the animal, they will ask you some questions about the symptoms. Subsequently, you should perform a physical examination, highlighting the hydration status of your cat, the state of its body, the presence of abdominal pain and the color of the mucous membranes, which will turn yellow if it suffers from jaundice.

To confirm the diagnosis, a blood test is performed that includes specific markers to detect pancreatitis. Blood tests are also useful to know the general health of the cat and other organs that may be affected. In the case of pancreatitis, it will be the liver.

Ultrasound is much more helpful than radiography in these cases and can reveal the cat’s inflamed pancreas, confirming the diagnosis. That said, your vet will be able to choose the appropriate tests to properly diagnose your cat.

Treatment of pancreatitis in cats

Treatment will depend on whether your cat has acute or chronic pancreatitis. Acute feline pancreatitis presents the most serious risk and therefore almost always requires hospitalization. On the other hand, chronic pancreatitis may require periodic trips to the hospital, however it is usually possible to care for it from home.

When in hospital, vets will treat your cat with fluids through an IV to treat any dehydration. These fluids will also detoxify your cat’s pancreas of harmful inflammatory chemicals.

Antibiotics may also be given to minimize the risk of suppurative (infectious) pancreatitis. The vets at the veterinary hospital will also provide your cat with pain relievers and anti-nausea medications. It is very important to encourage and take good care of the patient to help her regain her appetite and her mood as soon as possible.

How to feed your cat after being hospitalized for pancreatitis

It is very important to feed your cat after they have been hospitalized for pancreatitis. Most vets will advise feeding them once at home after being in the hospital to prevent vomiting and stimulate their appetite. However, if your cat has other health problems, your vet may encourage you to increase her appetite at a slower rate. Ask your vet when you are in the hospital about how to deal with the recovery process at home.

When it comes to choosing what to feed them to eat, they should be of high quality and appetizing. Most cats opt for wet food as they enjoy the taste and it also helps them stay hydrated. You should also remember that a natural feline diet is full of healthy fats and proteins, so it is best to avoid grains and any foods that are highly processed.

If your cat is having a hard time eating and still vomits, talk to your vet. Antiemetics may be prescribed, which will help control nausea and vomiting, allowing your cat to regain its appetite soon. In severe cases, in which a cat cannot eat on its own, it will be necessary to hospitalize it and feed it through lines. Remember that whatever condition your cat is in, the vet will guide you through its recovery.

Finally, it is important to note that although severe cases of pancreatitis in cats require specialized hospital care, most cases of pancreatitis are mild and not threatening. However, to help your cat recover, it is important to take her to the vet as soon as we observe any abnormality or strange behavior. In this way, we prevent any disease that is suffering from progressing and our furry friend is able to recover faster.

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