Category: Health

Common health problems in Great Dane

Known as the ” Apollo among dogs ”, the Great Dane is characterized by its large size and friendly character. Although it is usually a healthy breed, this animal can get to suffer some diseases that must be identified; therefore, in the next article we will address the usual health problems in the Great Dane.
The Great Dane’s life expectancy is between 8 and 10 years, depending on the care provided. It is a large dog, weighs between 50 kg and 100 kg. And he is also recognized for his noble character, timid and very faithful to his master.
Due to its morphology, health problems in the Great Dane are the same as those presented by large breeds.

Wobbler syndrome

This pathology manifests itself with the instability in the walk of the dog. It happens because the spinal cord receives pressure at neck height. To avoid its development, the Great Dane must have an adequate diet from birth.
Early detection is essential, thus preventing motor problems and neurological damage that arise when the disorder is advanced.

Hip dysplasia

It is a type of hereditary malformation that manifests more frequently when young dogs are overweight. It involves the rotation and disengagement of the femur of the pelvic cavity. For this disease, there is the option of a surgical intervention, but it is very expensive, and in many cases success is limited.
The routines and care of Great Dane dogs that suffer from this problem should include short walks, a regulated weight and a healthy diet rich in proteins. By means of massages and the supply of anti-inflammatories prescribed by the veterinarian, episodes of pain are regulated.

Ectropion in the Great Dane

It is evidenced when the palpebral conjunctiva, inner part of the lower eyelid, is exposed. The first symptoms appear when the conjunctiva is red and inflamed and there are constant infections. Its treatment focuses on eye drops or lubricating creams; in very serious cases, a surgical intervention is carried out.

Gastric dilatation- DGV volvulus

This problem happens when food is supplied in quantities greater than those of the Great Dane’s stomach. Then, it dilates to obstruct the balanced functioning of the organism. It causes difficulty in the adequate return of blood from the abdomen to the heart, stomach rupture and pressure in the diaphragm.
A great Dane with DGV can have a swollen belly, suffer severe pain and try to vomit without success. The pain can make them growl and writhe.

Dilated cardiomyopathy

It occurs when the heart is obstructed by the exaggerated dilation of the ventricles, the atria, and the lower and upper chambers of the heart. When it reaches that point, the heart can not return to its natural state. This causes a weak blood pump that, as a consequence, also weakens the entire organ.
Fainting, depression, weakness and difficulty breathing are some of the most common symptoms. The diagnosis and treatment are very delicate and require an efficient performance as soon as the animal enters with the symptoms to the veterinary center.
These are some of the most common health problems that occur in the Great Dane. It is necessary to visit the vet regularly to reduce the risk of suffering from any of these pathologies and act immediately when the first symptoms appear.

Symptoms of urinary incontinence in dogs

When there is evidence that our dog can not control his urge to urinate, it is possible that we are facing a picture of urinary incontinence. There are some common symptoms that can help us show that the dog is suffering from this alteration, caused by major causes.
Urinary incontinence manifests itself in an involuntary drip of urination (urine). This problem occurs mostly in castrated dogs, due to the decrease in secreted hormones. A study conducted by the Royal Veterinary College showed that 1% is the general trend of urinary incontinence in males, while in females it is 3%.
Among other causes, it may be due to damage to the pudendal nerve, polydipsia, polyuria, kidney and bladder diseases, bladder stones, congenital birth defects or cognitive dysfunction due to aging. To treat this type of discomfort, it is necessary to identify the major disease that originates it.
In some cases, after the dog has become accustomed to relieve themselves outside the home, they manifest urinary incontinence if their outings are prolonged or their habits change abruptly. Due to the prolonged time of urine retention, some organ of the urinary excretory system is weakened; In more complex cases, they can develop tumors.
The dog breeds most likely to suffer from urinary incontinence are the Setter, the Boxer, the Bullmastiff, the Fox Terrier and the Bulldog.

¿What are the symptoms?

The involuntary dribbling of the urine usually manifests when the dog is asleep or at rest. In some cases it manifests itself, too, when jumping, walking or running.
Wet spots in their resting place.
Inflammation and redness of the skin around the genitals.
Area of ​​the vulva or the penis always wet.
He constantly licks his genital area.
If your dog comes to urinate in a place where it is not allowed, you should avoid punishing him because this will not solve the problem. First, you should take it to the vet to find the reason and then habituate the exits according to their condition. Cleaning the home with enzymatic products helps the adaptation process at home.
When you realize that your dog has changed his habits and that these symptoms extend to more than two days, you should take him urgently to the vet.
Young male dogs do not tend to urinary incontinence so if they develop these symptoms should be evaluated by the veterinarian to rule out a urethral disease of the prostate and bladder.
On the other hand, young dogs under one year that manifest these symptoms in the same way should be evaluated so that the specialist discards any congenital anomaly.

¿Why do the symptoms of urinary incontinence appear?

In puppies, urinary incontinence is due to certain common causes: absence or lack of recognition of the place to urinate, escape of urine by excitement, excessive fear or malformation.
For the first cause, the ideal is that after the ninth week that the puppy can recognize and choose the place for their needs, we will detail and teach to do it voluntarily in the place we want. Although, if at home there is no place for your needs, you will have to establish a fixed departure time at the same time, between two and three times a day.
When it is given by excitement it is because of games, effusive or prolonged receptions; that is, those very strong stimuli that cause nervousness cause small amounts of urine to escape. For these cases, it is recommended that the intensity of these stimuli be reduced. You only have to love and reward him when he is calm, otherwise, the behavior will be reinforced.
Among the malformations are those located at the level of the ureters, also called ectopic ureters. This happens when the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder comes out and empties into the urine around the vulva or penis.
In castrated dogs, urinary incontinence occurs due to hormonal deficit. In females, due to estrogen deficiency and in males due to testosterone deficiency. These deficiencies cause the muscle tone of the sphincter to weaken, since these hormones are what give strength to the organ.
Elderly dogs suffer changes in the brain, related to advanced age. One of them is cognitive dysfunction syndrome. One of its symptoms is urinary incontinence that may be related to kidney disease, diabetes or Cushing’s syndrome.
Other causes of urinary incontinence in dogs are neurogenic, a spinal cord injury that affects the nerves that control the bladder.
Hypersensitivity incontinence is when the bladder is obstructed by urethral stones, tumors or stenosis. Renal failure is another common cause of urinary incontinence in dogs. These symptoms, together with others such as vomit and foul breath, may indicate that the dog suffers from kidney failure.

Treatment of urinary incontinence in dogs

As previously mentioned, in order to properly treat the dog it is necessary to take it to the veterinarian in order to determine the original cause of the incontinence.
In urinary incontinence caused by malformations, surgical surgery can be used to join the kidney canal to the bladder.
Dogs that suffer from stress incontinence are affected by some stimulus from their environment. They suffer from fear and nervousness, to the point that they can not contain the urine. For this case, the treatment would be to limit the cause of the nervousness. The punishment does not solve the problem, moreover, it could cause a trauma.
For incontinence caused by hormonal deficit, the treatment is pharmacological, increasing the presence of estrogen or testosterone that benefits the strengthening of the sphincter.
It is important to keep in mind that urinary incontinence in dogs should not be treated as an isolated case as it is a consequence of major illnesses or behaviors that the dog adopts in certain situations. This condition is, therefore, a multifactorial problem.

Recommendations to treat severe cases of feline acne

Hair follicles infected by bacteria cause feline acne. It is a consequence of poor hygiene or alterations in the keratinization process of the cat’s skin, which develops because the hair follicles produce excessive amounts of keratin and sebum. Another cause is stress.
This skin condition is located mostly in the chin, an area that is also called submental organ, there are large sebaceous glands. Before proceeding with any treatment for its cure, it is necessary to make a diagnosis so that other cutaneous infectious pathologies are discarded.
If the condition is not treated in time during its early stages, pyoderma, scabby lesions, folliculitis, pustular, erythema and excoriations derived from scratching will occur.
It is important to clarify that feline acne has no cure. If a case is diagnosed chronically, the cat will need treatment and lifelong care.

¿What to do in severe cases of feline acne?

Among the recommendations to treat severe cases of feline acne are:
Replace the plastic container where you eat or drink water with one of stainless steel, glass or ceramic.
Disinfect the area with chlorhexidine soap (disinfectant and antiseptic) 2 or 3 times a day. Then, dry the area well, humidity is conducive environment for bacteria and fungi to spread.
Another pharmacological composition used is benzoyl peroxide or hydrogen peroxide; Thanks to the antibacterial properties of both, they give good results in the treatment of feline acne.
Remove the cat from other animals and put it in quarantine while it is in treatment. This, in addition, is important so that healing can occur successfully.
In severe cases, the cat should be taken to the veterinarian to perform a culture and antibiogram, and thus identify exactly what antibiotic to supply. Usually, this type of treatment goes from 4 to 6 weeks depending on the severity of the acne. Oral treatments are more effective than topical treatments.
When the acne shows pustular lesions of great size and a lot of inflammation, the vet specialist in dermatology will propose the option of a surgical intervention for the extirpation of the same ones.

Alternatives for the treatment of feline acne

There are some products, such as Zymox pet spray with hydrocortisone 1.0%, which are used to fight all types of bacteria; In addition, they accelerate the healing process of wounds and skin infections. As the presentation is in spray, its handling and application is usually comfortable.
As for natural products, apple cider vinegar is an excellent remedy to eliminate allergens that cause irritation. Also, clean the skin, being able to kill mites, fleas and ringworms.
On the other hand, applying Aloe vera on the infected area serves to calm and reduce inflammation, however, be very careful that the cat does not swallow it as it can be toxic.
Feline acne can be a symptom of other diseases or pathologies, so it is necessary to go to the veterinarian to determine the cause and actions to follow.

Surgical treatment in cryptorchid dogs

Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital disorder of the testicles of dogs. It is a congenital sexual anomaly that is manifested by the incomplete descent of the testicles into the scrotal sac. It is considered an autosomal recessive trait limited to sex, meaning that both males and females carry the gene that can be transmitted to their progeny.
When detected, it is necessary that the animal is taken to the veterinarian because it could cause serious problems in the future, such as the appearance of Sertoli cell tumor, seminomas and testicular torsions.
The diagnosis is made by palpation and ultrasound, in order to know exactly the position of the testicles. The cure is to perform a surgical treatment for cryptorchid dogs

¿At what age is cryptorchidism manifested in dogs?

At 8 weeks, the sexual reproductive organ of dogs begins to be visible, however, the testicles are still in the process of positioning themselves in the scrotal sac. From the abdomen, halfway between the kidney and the inguinal ring, it is from where the testes descend; if there is any inconvenience in this process, cryptorchidism will occur.
When the puppy is 3 months old, the positioning of the testicles in the scrotum can be observed.
There are different types of cryptorchidism, among which are the inguinal, abdominal, intraabdominal and extraabdominal.
They are also classified by unilateral and bilateral. It is associated with the first term when a testicle is involved, mainly the right. It refers to the second, when it affects both.
Inguinal cryptorchidism occurs when one or both testicles do not reach the scrotal sac, remaining in the inguinal or subcutaneous channel in the groin area. The abdominal cryptorchidism occurs when they do not descend and stay in the abdomen.
Some breeds of dogs are more prone to cryptorchidism, among them, the Poodle, Yorkshire, Teckel Maltes, Boxer, Pekinese and the Miniature Schnauzer.

¿What is the treatment?

Surgical treatment in cryptorchid dogs is the only option for this anomaly, which consists in the removal of the testicles that have not descended. For each type of cryptorchidism there is a specific procedure.
Thus, for abdominal cryptorchidism, it is necessary to perform a ventral or preputial medial laparotomy of the abdominal cavity. This procedure consists of opening the abdominal walls to proceed to orchiectomy (removal) of one or both of the testicles.
For inguinal cryptorchidism, a small incision will be made locally for orchiectomy. In some inguinal cases, orchidopexy has been resorted to, which involves transferring the testicle to the scrotal sac, however, this procedure is not accepted in veterinary medicine as it violates ethics. Also, it may cause a greater probability of development of neoplasia or torsion of the retained testicle.
Instead of conventional laparotomy, minimally invasive surgery, known as laparoscopic surgery, is an alternative that offers great advantages, such as better visualization of the structure during procedures, a faster postoperative recovery and a shorter hospitalization period. .

Excision of the testicles

After having removed the testicle (s), orchiectomy or sterilization is recommended. It should be taken into account that at the moment of performing the excision, the location of the testicles is important, as the procedure varies.
In the case of the intra-abdominal cryptorchid testicle, an abdominal incision will be made through the ventral or parapreputial midline. The location should be done following the vas deferens or the testicular vessels from its prostatic end.
In the extra-abdominal, the common castration technique will be used, except when the incision made on the skin is directly on the testicle.

Other treatments for cryptorchidism

Some veterinarians recommend hormonal injections to help the testicles to descend. This treatment is most effective within the first four months of life and when the testicle is outside the abdominal cavity. It is fairly effective because testosterone is important in the second phase, inguinal, of the migration of the testes.
If this same treatment is performed when the testicle is in abdominal function, the effect will be practically nil. Massage therapy, likewise, may favor the treatment of inguinal cryptorchidism.

Pre-operative care for cryptorchid dogs

In order for anesthesia to be assimilated by the animal’s organism correctly, it must attend, from the day of surgery, fasting.
It is necessary to inform the veterinarian of the health problems presented by the animal or a history of surgeries. In the same way, the veterinarian should know the medications that the pet has been taking or if it is still in treatment.
Also, it is important to bathe the pet to remove all traces of dirt and tangles in the hair; it is even more advisable to shave the area that will be submitted to the intervention.

Post-operative care for cryptorchid dogs

When performing a laparoscopy, patient care does not require post-surgical hospitalization, this means that after anesthesia they can be discharged. As the case may be, analgesia will be necessary in the next 24 hours; Antibiotics will not be necessary, and wound care is minimal.
In general, inguinal cryptorchidism interventions are less complex, in two days the pet will already be in its natural mood; On the other hand, if it is an abdominal cryptorchidism, time doubles.
Of course, if a more complex surgical procedure is performed, the care is different from that of laparoscopic surgery and should be more thorough.
It is important to know that there is no way to prevent cryptorchidism. Therefore, it is recommended that sterilization be done at the time of removal, so that the descendants do not suffer from the same condition.
By not removing the testicles, the dog will be affected by a type of tumor that secretes large amounts of female hormones, which may suffer the feminization syndrome.

Main diseases of pets in summer

Summer, the warmest season of the year, associated with the sun, the beach and holidays, is, in general, a time to relax and enjoy with our pets. However, not everything can be rosy since this time of year could bring complications to animals. That is why we bring you this post, so you can know the most common diseases of pets in summer and know what to do to present some of these problems.

Gastrointestinal or stomach diseases in pets

It is very important to monitor what we feed our pets in the summer. Humans get carried away and consume fast food containing saturated and chemical fats; These foods can be harmful to our pets, so it is important to know that we can only feed the foods recommended by veterinarians and according to the needs of each organism, so that an inadequate diet will not bring future complications.
A stomach condition manifests with diarrhea and vomiting; also, changes of mood and energy can be observed in our pets, as well as, in some cases, complaints or small shrieks.
The main thing is to remove any type of food to the pet for a few hours, as this could lead to complications. It is important to give plenty of water to keep it hydrated and to dissipate all toxic elements. If the vomiting or diarrhea continues after 12 hours, it will be necessary to go directly to the veterinarian’s office.

Otitis in pets

Another of the most common diseases of pets in summer is otitis, due mainly to high temperatures and to which we tend to bathe animals more frequently. If we go on vacation with them, they will probably be in contact with the water because in summer we usually visit rivers and spas. Bathing them continuously causes them to get liquid in their ears, which makes them more prone to these inflammations.
The most common symptom of otitis in the pet is the abundant segregation of wax in his ear, accompanied by bad odor. Also, we can see that he scratches his ears desperately.
The diagnosis is made through a culture of faeces, since by the bacteria that occur in them it is possible to determine the type of otitis. It is very important that the veterinarian make the diagnosis since the most appropriate treatment will depend on the type of otitis or the type of bacteria that our pet has acquired.

Diseases in the skin of our pets

The variation of food, temperature and habitat, can trigger diseases in the skin of pets in summer. There are allergies that can be acquired by contact with substances such as pollen, especially in this hot season because, due to heat, the skin is more delicate.
In these cases, we will observe that our pet scratches more than usual. Also, we may notice redness in the skin, appearance of small welts and hair loss.
Because allergies can appear by different factors, it is essential to take the pet to the veterinarian, in order to know the reason that caused the allergy and apply an appropriate treatment.

How ataxia manifests in dogs

Ataxia is a physical condition that can be triggered by intoxication or trauma. This condition causes variations in the canine neurological system, since it affects the ability to feel the relative position of body parts; These sensitive pathways are called ” proprioceptive ” which are the main affected by this condition.
This disease is caused by variations in the vestibular system, responsible for body balance and orientation in terms of space and gravity. Some of the injuries that could trigger ataxia in dogs are canine distemper, otitis or blows related to falls of high altitude, outrages, fights or other conditions such as, for example, Wobbler syndrome.

Symptoms of ataxia in dogs

The vestibular system fulfills the function of orienting dogs in terms of space and gravity. When this system is affected, we begin to see our pet somewhat disoriented and it is very likely that it is suffering from Ataxia.
These are some of the symptoms related to ataxia in dogs:

  • Nausea and vomiting associated with imbalance.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Head tilted, one ear lower than the other.
  • Changes in mood
  • Decontrol in the sphincters.
  • Strabismus or abnormal eye movements.
  • Discoordination and lack of control of their extremities.

¿What to do before the appearance of the first symptoms of ataxia in our pet?

If you begin to observe the appearance of these symptoms in the dog, it is necessary to go immediately to the veterinarian, who will request a complete history on the health of your pet, record the time elapsed since the onset of symptoms and possible trauma or substances that may have developed this condition.
Subsequently, the veterinarian will proceed with the analysis, which includes blood counts, urinalysis, biochemical profile and an electrolyte panel; employing tomography and magnetic resonance is also essential when developing the diagnosis, because it helps determine if the disease is located in the peripheral vestibular system, in the cerebellum or in the spinal cord; if it is suspected that the source of the condition is lodged in the nervous system, a CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) sample will be taken for analysis.

The treatment of ataxia in dogs

Normally diagnosed dogs can be treated on an outpatient basis, unless their condition is serious or the factor that caused our pet to develop this condition could put their lives at risk. It is important not to medicate our dog because many drugs could worsen the disease or camouflage the cause of it.
Some veterinarians maintain that dogs could recover from this disease if it is subjected to absolute rest combined with the intake of analgesics and antibiotics. Now, if the condition of our dog is more delicate, a surgical intervention may be necessary.
Another trigger of this condition is the consumption of foods from our own diet that can be harmful to our dogs, especially those that contain xylitol (sweetener). If this is the case, a fluid therapy treatment should be applied, which is based on correcting the altered radioelectric balance with an intravenous technique.

Diagnosis and treatment of feline lymphoma

Over the years, several studies have been carried out to find the real cause of feline lymphoma, however, little is known about it; It is believed that some cats get this disease because they have a genetic susceptibility to develop various types of cancer.
Feline lymphoma is a malignant tumor that is produced by an abnormal increase in lymphocytes. These are cells that are distributed throughout the tissues and that are found in the lymph nodes, skin, kidneys, liver, nervous system, bone marrow, among others.
In general, this disease occurs from the youth of the feline to his advanced age.

Types of feline lymphoma

Gastrointestinal lymphoma: It damages the stomach, small intestine, large intestine and in some cases other abdominal organs can be affected. This tumor can be focal (appearance of a mass / s) or thick (thickening of the intestine). This type of lymphoma occurs in cats from 6 to 9 years of age.
Multicentric lymphoma: The tumors occur in several areas of the feline’s body. This affects several lymph nodes located in the jaw, groin area, back of the legs, behind the shoulder or even internal organs. Multicentric lymphoma is the least common, but, if it occurs, it hurts cats between 3 to 5 years.
Mediastinal lymphoma: affects the lymph nodes of the mediastinum (located in the center of the thorax) and the thymus gland (lymphoid glandular organ belonging to the immune system). This type of lymphoma can grow a lot in the chest cavity and create difficulty breathing, in addition to affecting the feline esophagus and prevent swallowing water or food. It occurs in cats under 2 years. The most affected breeds are the Siamese and eastern.
Miscellaneous lymphoma: The damaged areas are the central nervous system, skin, nasal cavity and kidneys. The most affected area is usually the nasal cavity, which produces an abnormal secretion of it. Cats aged 5 to 9 years are more likely to have this type of lymphoma.

Symptoms linked to feline lymphoma

The symptoms are different because, the tumor can appear anywhere in the body. Some can be:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness.
  • Weightloss.
  • Lumps on the skin
  • Wounds that do not heal quickly.
  • Changes in the eyes
  • Bleeding
  • Difficulty breathing, eating or drinking water.
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea.
  • Limp.
  • Intermittent or continuous salivation.
  • Depression.
  • Bad smell.

¿How is feline lymphoma diagnosed?

According to specialists, a key element for the successful treatment of feline lymphoma is the early detection of the problem, which must be given by the owner of the pet, who must recognize the cancer when it is located and has not yet invaded the animal’s organism. .
More than the visualization of an increase in volume in any part of the body of the pet, what should be done is to recognize the early signs of potentially malignant changes. With the slightest suspicion of cancer, it is necessary to take it to the veterinarian.
Feline lymphoma is diagnosed by medical processes such as:

  • X-rays
  • Ultrasounds
  • Endoscopy
  • Biopsies
  • Blood test.
  • Axial tomography (CT).
  • Magnetic resonance.

With these methods, the tumor is located in the feline’s body; however, it is important to bear in mind that a blood test should first be performed as a routine method before any suspect. Then, proceed to perform any of these methods, as indicated by the veterinarian.

Feline lymphoma treatment

Treatment depends on the location of the tumor and its type. The feline can undergo surgery and the veterinarian must decide whether to remove the entire tumor or remove a part, the rest will be treated with chemotherapies or radiotherapies for animals. Generally, this disease responds well to chemotherapy, but only prolongs feline life because it may not cure it definitively. On the other hand, the nasal or mediastinal tumors of the Siamese can reach the cure with this type of treatments.
In most cases, two chemotherapy drugs and one steroid are combined. Chemotherapies can produce side effects in the feline’s health, such as bone marrow suppression, hair loss, gastrointestinal irritation, damage to the kidneys or the heart, among others. A good indicator to know if a cat is reacting well to chemotherapy in its initial response to the first session, if the cat shows a good response, can be a good sign for chemotherapy to continue until the treatment is completed.
For its part, radiotherapy is more difficult to perform because some veterinarians do not have the necessary instruments to perform it. The process is done by placing an external radiation on the tumor, which has the ability to eliminate malignant cells, but also benign.
Another option may be the provision of oral medications in the form of tablets or injectables to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Likewise, the cat should be given a good nutrition, hydration and tranquility, so that it can recover effectively.

¿How to act before the suspicion of feline lymphoma in the pet?

If your cat has any of the symptoms mentioned above, it is advisable to be taken to the veterinarian as soon as possible, because the more advanced the tumor, it will become really difficult to cure or treat.
If the cat has undergone chemotherapy, he should avoid contact with his feces and urine since, through these, a large amount of chemicals is being expelled from the drugs.
Providing a healthy feeding and hydration to the feline so that it can recover considerably is extremely important; Also, the owner of the pet should have good hygiene and avoid touching the cat’s stool and urine.
At the time of surgery, a pre-anesthetic evaluation should be done to the cat to avoid complications and evaluate its behavior.
Finally, a blood test should be performed before each chemotherapy to verify that the cat’s values ​​are stable. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the reaction of the cat towards the supplied drugs and in case of presenting complications, the use should be suspended and go to the veterinarian.

We tell you all about herniated disc in dogs

Having a pet implies a very broad level of responsibility and different aspects must be taken into account in order to share a happy existence with her. Among the fundamental care of attention to domestic animals are to provide them with a good diet, a safe, cozy and clean habitat and quickly address any issue related to their health.
In addition, it is important to know any condition that may occur, as well as take it regularly to the veterinarian, for routine checks. In this context, from this space we provide some articles on diseases and conditions that may occur in the pet. In this opportunity, we are going to refer to the herniated disc in dogs, so they can recognize their symptoms and act accordingly.

¿How is herniated disc manifested in dogs?

In dogs, the herniated disc presents as a pathology in which a compression of the spinal cord is generated, either because the disc material leaves the medullary canal (extrusion) or bulging (protrusion). It is a neurological disease that causes a lot of pain in the animal, altering its daily life.
Thus, due to the complications of the disease, the quality of life of the pet tends to change, so it is extremely important to identify the problem early, so that the veterinarian can start, as soon as possible, the appropriate treatment.

The first symptoms of herniated discs in dogs

The closeness we have with our dog makes it much easier to recognize anomalies in behavior or changes that may occur in your routine. This relationship and mutual knowledge allows us to detect the signs that our pet is suffering from a disease or is not feeling well.
There are two different presentations of the condition in dogs: in some cases, the dogs have a strong sudden pain and immediately they register the loss of sensation in the extremities that are affected by the compression of the bone marrow; in others, the dog has sporadic episodes in which it manifests pain and the affected area becomes inflamed. Sometimes, an injection can take the picture back, but it is more likely that this condition will reappear after a short time.
When observing our dog, we must consider as indications that it is difficult for him to perform some movements that are routine for him or that he should get help to be able to get up when he is lying down.
Anyone who has his pet suffering from this degenerative neurological disease in its most advanced degree, agrees that the pain must be very severe because of the way the animal cries and makes it manifest.

Types of herniated disc

Not all herniated discs are presented in the same way, therefore, the diagnosis stage is important to identify the degree to which the disease is found. The simple radiograph is not enough to identify the picture, so it is usually indicated the performance of a myelogram, which is a technique that by contrast allows to see the state of the bone marrow, by an MRI or through a CT scan.
The severity of the hernia is evaluated according to the degree of deterioration presented by the intervertebral discs. For example:

  • The grade I is the mildest, does not present neurological damage, but pain.
  • The disease in grade II has an initial neurological damage because it is the beginning of the development of the hernia in its compression process; here the episodes in which mobilization is difficult become noticeable.
  • In grade III, the compression is present in a serious way and is presented directly in the behavior of the animal, since it will show lack of strength or paresis, usually affecting the two hind legs.
  • The grade IV, as is logical, brings with it a more serious picture, in which the lack of strength in the muscles worsens, even reaching cases of complete paralysis, in addition to not being able to control the sphincters.
  • Finally, grade V is the most serious of all and presents, in addition to total paralysis and lack of urine retention, a complete loss of sensation in the limbs that the discs affect, either front and / or back. .

Main treatments of the herniated disc in dogs

There are two treatments for this disease that are indicated by the veterinarian according to the degree of development in which it is found. In general, when the severity of the condition is in grade I or II, a treatment can be established through absolute rest and the prescription of anti-inflammatories and / or steroids.
When the case of disc herniation reaches the veterinarian in a grade III, IV or V, it is most likely to be referred to an operation where the disc causing the main compression on the bone marrow is removed, restructuring the medullary canal to prevent that similar cases do not arise later.
It is very important to follow the instructions of the veterinarian in both treatments to the letter and accompany the pet in the process.

Rehabilitation and post operative

The care and attention of the owners is essential for the proper recovery of dogs. In any of the treatments, it is important that the pets are accompanied by the family since, sometimes, this type of injuries can bring with it severe depression.
In case of opting for surgical treatment, it is likely that the veterinarian will indicate a series of rehabilitation therapies that can be developed by the owners or specialists, to prevent the muscles and tendons of the affected limbs from atrophying.
Remember that, for these cases, your biggest ally is the veterinarian, so, at the slightest indication that your pet is suffering from any condition, turn to the consultation to be on time to prevent major problems.

¿What are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in cats?

Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a parasite called toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by eating contaminated food, especially raw meats and poorly cooked vegetables that have this parasite. Let’s see a little more in depth the characteristics of this disease and its relationship with cats.

How is the infectious process of toxoplasmosis developed?

The oocysts dissolve in the digestion releasing sporozoites that are distributed by the intestinal walls of the cats, reaching the small intestine and thus beginning the multiplication asexually. These oocysts are expelled into the environment by feces, which is what generates the epidemiological chain. When expelled, they sporulate in an ideal environment.
Bacteriologists Nicolle and Manceaux discovered this affectation for the first time by analyzing the cells of the liver and spleen of an African rodent. The belief that the only ones affected by this parasite are felines is uncertain, both aquatic and terrestrial animals, mainly birds and mammals, including humans, are prone to be infected; however, the most affected are felines, particularly cats, because they are the only definitive hosts that release oocysts to the environment.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in cats

They will depend directly on the stage of the cycle. In the initial enteroepithelial phase, symptoms begin with vomiting, diarrhea, fever between 40 ° C to 41 ° intermittently and weight loss. The symptoms of toxoplasmosis are easily manifested in kittens or cats with weak immune systems.
When the cat has low defenses and, in addition, the oocysts that the animal has consumed are mature, the symptoms may manifest as fever and difficulty in breathing.
Cats with a strong immune system do not tend to show noticeably serious symptoms, but, when noticing any change in behavior in them, it is recommended to take them urgently to the veterinarian.
While the affectation continues, the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in cats evolve in the following way, beginning to manifest in the extraintestinal cycle phase:
Respiratory commitments: asphyxia or breathlessness when breathing, increased respiratory rate, sneezing causing nasal discharges and abundant mucus secretion.
Digestive commitments: abdominal pain, constant diarrhea, increased bilirubin in the blood causing yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as liver involvement and pancreatitis.
Neuronal commitment: Decrease in temperature, described as hypothermia. Auditory contraction that causes lack of coordination and / or torticollis. Somnolence accompanied by fatigue, pain in the joints and even paralysis of some organs. The increase of affectivity in the feline relates it to this affectation.
Ocular commitments: Irritation and haemorrhages in the cat’s retina, poor visual acuity and inflammation.
Skin Commitments: Ulcerations such as these develop cell necrosis creating lesions.

Care to avoid toxoplasmosis in cats

Toxoplasmosis not diagnosed early or treated incorrectly, can cause the death of the feline. The cats with street habits are more prone to contract the parasite, due to the great contamination that they find in the water, soils and infected foods. Clindamycin is the drug most used to eradicate the parasite and counteract its effects.
In hot and humid climates, the parasite is more common, while, in high temperatures, drought or low humidity, its resistance is lower. The way to prevent the proliferation of toxoplasmosis in cats is prevention; It should be washed with hot water and disinfected where the cat defecates, filter the water before consumption and control street habits. As soon as you detect any of its symptoms, it is strongly advised to go to your trusted veterinary clinic.

Canine dysplasia: symptoms and treatment

Coxofemoral dysplasia in a disease that affects many dogs in the world. The first description of hip dysplasia in dogs was made by the American Schenelle in 1935, and it was this veterinarian who described them according to their severity. He explained that the origin of canine dysplasia was genetic, so he promoted programs and campaigns against this condition and the search to treat it in a less painful way. In this article we will show some clues to recognize if your dog suffers from this condition.
Hip dysplasia is a progressive and degenerative hereditary disease. The term dysplasia, as such, is related to an alteration in the shape of the anatomical structure, that is, a dysplasia can manifest in the elbow, in the hips, etc.
It is a militant disease that occurs in puppies or very old dogs and usually manifests in dogs of large and medium-sized breeds such as Dogo Argentino, San Bernardo, German Shepherd, Napolitan Mastiff or Basset hound.
As indicated by veterinarians, their origin is multifactorial; It can be genetic, overweight or environmental conditions.

What is canine dysplasia?

This pathology consists in that the head of the femur does not fit well in the acetabulum cavity (hollow of the hip). The lack of synchrony between muscle and skeletal development leads to microfractures, cartilage erosion, subluxation and, finally, phenomena of degenerative osteoarthritis.

How to know if our dog suffers from dysplasia?

It is always important before making any diagnosis, go to the veterinarian to perform the respective orthopedic exams and thus determine if you really suffer from dysplasia.
Here we will give you some clues about the common symptoms suffered by dogs with dysplasia:
If your dog belongs to any of the races mentioned above, you should be careful in its growth process to monitor if there is something out of the ordinary.
If your dog walks very slowly.
If you walk as if you used your hind legs to make slight jumps (like rabbits).
If standing keeps the legs very close.
If you show pain in the back of the body.
If you have morning stiffness.
If you have difficulty climbing to places where you normally did.
If you have alterations in your behavior.
It is important to emphasize that dogs that suffer from this condition should avoid reproducing because, as we mentioned before, it is a hereditary disease.

What treatments are there for dysplasia?

There are two types of treatment for dysplasia: medical and surgical.
Among the medical procedures are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and physiotherapeutic treatments, which consist of relaxing massages in the area of ​​the hips. Another of the medical treatments are the contrometabolics, which help the restoration of cartilage and stimulates the relief of pain.
Among the surgical treatments is the triple osteotomy, which consists in reorienting the acetabulum to fit the head of the femur; the arthroplasty by excision of the head of the femur, which is about amputating the head of the femur to eliminate the pain caused by friction, and the hip prosthesis, consists in suppressing the head of the femur and the acetabulum with the aim of replacing it with artificial devices.

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